WINSLOW-COTTON LINE

(1) 1 Josiah Winslow, 7G Grandfather

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Birth:                      11 Feb 1605/06

Birth Place:              Droitwich, Kempsey, Worcestershire, England

Death:                     1 Dec 1674, age: 69

Death Place:             Marshfield, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     1 Dec 1674

Burial Place:             buried Marshfield, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Burial:                     bef

Baptism:                  bef

Father:                     Edward Winslow, 8G Grandfather (17 Oct 1560-1620)

Mother:                   Magdaline Ollyver, 8G Grandmother (4 Aug 1566-aft 1606)

JOSIAH WINSLOW

ORIGIN:  Droitwich, Worcestershire

MIGRATION:  1631

FIRST RESIDENCE:  Plymouth

REMOVES:  Marshfield by 1643

OCCUPATION:  Bookkeeper [Stratton 375].

FREEMAN:  Admitted 1 January 1633/4 [PCR 1:4, 5].  In list of Plymouth Colony freemen of 7 March 1636/7 [PCR 1:52].  In Plymouth section of 1639 Plymouth Colony list of freemen [PCR 8:173], then erased and entered in Marshfield section of same list [PCR 8:177, 195].  In Marshfield section of 1658 and 29 May 1670 lists of Plymouth Colony freemen [PCR 5:277, 8:201].

EDUCATION:  The inventory of his estate included “1 Great Bible & psalm book,” 8s., “1 book of Ursinus on Christian Religion,” 9s., “2 books of Mr. Burrowghes,” 6s., “1 book of Mr. Weemes,” 2s. 6d., “1 book called Bloody Tenett,” 2s., and “26 old books,” 6s.

OFFICES:  Deputy for Marshfield to Plymouth General Court, 6 June 1643, 10 October 1643, 5 March 1643/4, 3 March 1645/6, 1 June 1647, 5 June 1651 [PCR 2:57, 63, 68, 95, 117, 168].  Council of War, 5 June 1671 [PCR 5:64, 73].  Marshfield selectman, 3 June 1674 [PCR 5:144].

 In Marshfield section of 1643 Plymouth Colony list of men able to bear arms [PCR 8:196].

ESTATE:  Granted one hundred acres at Teticutt, 4 March 1673/4 (pursuant to an order of June 1662 [PCR 5:141].

In his will, dated 12 April 1673 and proved 4 March 1674/5, “Josiah Winslow of the town of Marshfield Senior” appointed “Margarett my dear and loving wife my sole executrix” and bequeathed to her for life “one half of my dwelling house … and one half of the orchard and outhousing and also the one half of the land thereunto belonging, both meadow and upland, … in the town of Marshfield … and the one half of all the lands belonging to me, by any grant granted to me formerly or to be granted”; “for the other part of my lands, house and housing I do give unto my natural son Jonathan Winslow … with that half given to my wife after her decease … but in case the said Jonathan shall die without heirs … the whole and every part of the said lands and housing shall be disposed of [after the decease of Jonathan’s wife] unto my four daughters and their heirs”; to “Hannah Miller my grandchild now living with me, if she continue with her grandmother during her life, or day of the said Hannah her marriage,” moveables; “for my Indian apprentice I leave him and his time to my wife”; to “my grandchildren” ten shillings apiece; to “my faithful and truly loving friend Mr. Samuell Arnold our Reverend Teacher my black cloak”; to “my son Jonathan my best suit and what bedding he now makes use of and the Bible that is mine”; “my loving nephew Major Josiah Winslow and Captain William Bradford” to be overseers [MD 34:33-34, citing PCPR 3:1:131-32].

The inventory of the estate of “Mr. Josiah Winslow deceased,” taken 17 December 1674, totalled ú107 16s. 1[illegible]d.; the real estate, not valued, was “one dwelling house and one hundred acres of upland without housing thereon and a considerable parcel or parcels of meadow belonging thereunto the quantity unknown to us” in Marshfield, also “1 hundred acres of upland lying in the town of Middleberry or Bridgwater near Teticutt River” [MD 34:34-35, citing PCPR 3:1:135, 136, 138].

On 1 March 1674/5 “[w]hereas the last will and testament of Mr. Josiah Winslow, Senior, deceased, the 12th day of the 2cond month, 1673, was presented unto the Court to be proved: Before probate of which caution was presented, grounded on sundry testimonies upon oath, whereby it did appear unto this Court that Mr. Josias Winslow, Senior, aforesaid, his house, and all his lands lying and being in Marhsfeild, were given by him the said Josias Winslow unto his son and heir, Jonathan Winslow, in frank marriage unto Ruth, the daughter of Mr. Will[i]am Serjeant, which said house and lands in Marshfeild are again devised by his last will and testament unto his son, Jonathan Winslow, in tail; the Court apprehending that a man cannot by his last will and testament defeat and make void a gift of lands made unto his son and heir in frank marriage, but that such gift is extinct, and made void by a former gift in frank marriage, and therefore do declare that part of the will, so far as the disposal of the said house and land, to be a void gift, and do order that the abovesaid testimonies upon oath to be herewith recorded, and the rest of the said will abovesaid to stand valid, and do grant letters of administration unto Mistress Margarett Winslow, executrix to the said will, and do request the honored Governor to take her oath to the inventory of the estate” [PCR 5:159-60].

BIRTH:  Baptized Droitwich, Worcestershire, 16 February 1605/6; bp. there 16 February 1605/6, son of Edward and Magdalen (Oliver) Winslow [NEHGR 4:297, 21:210].

DEATH:  Buried Marshfield 1 December 1674 in his sixty-ninth year [MarVR 9].

MARRIAGE:  By 1637 Margaret Bourne, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (_____) Bourne [Waterman Gen 1:615-16, 619].  She died 28 September 1683, aged seventy-five years [PChR 1:250], and was buried at Marshfield on 2 October 1683 [MarVR 14].

CHILDREN:

i) ELIZABETH, b. Marshfield 24 September 1637 [MarVR 2]; no further record.

ii) JONATHAN, b. Marshfield 8 August 1639 [MarVR 2]; m. by 1664 Ruth Sargent (eldest child b. Marshfield 1 March 1664 [MarVR 7]; Josiah Winslow gave his Marshfield land “unto his son and heir, Jonathan Winslow, in frank marriage unto Ruth, the daughter of Mr. Will[i]am Serjeant” [PCR 5:159]).

iii) MARGARET, b. Marshfield 15 (or 16) July 1640 [MarVR 2; NEHGR 51:33]; m. Marshfield 24 December 1659 John Miller [NEHGR 51:33-34].

iv) REBECCA, b. Marshfield 15 July 1643 [MarVR 2]; m. by 1665 John Thatcher (eldest child) b. Yarmouth 20 May 1665 [MD 13:221]).  (Savage gives the date of this marriage as 6 November 1661, at Marshfield, but this event does not appear in the Marshfield records.)

v) HANNAH, b. Marshfield 30 November 1644 [MarVR 2]; m. (1) Plymouth 5 April 1664 William Crow [MD 17:185]; m. (2) by 1687 John Sturtevant (eldest known child b. Plymouth 10 April 1687 [MD 1:145, 17:185]).

vi) MARY, b. say 1646; m. Marshfield 10 June 1670 John Tracy [MarVR 427].

ASSOCIATIONS:  Brother of EDWARD WINSLOW, JOHN WINSLOW, GILBERT WINSLOW and KENELM WINSLOW.

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Misc. Notes: JOSIAH WINSLOW

ORIGIN:  Droitwich, Worcestershire

MIGRATION:  1631

FIRST RESIDENCE:  Plymouth

REMOVES:  Marshfield by 1643

OCCUPATION:  Bookkeeper [Stratton 375].

FREEMAN:  Admitted 1 January 1633/4 [PCR 1:4, 5].  In list of Plymouth Colony freemen of 7 March 1636/7 [PCR 1:52].  In Plymouth section of 1639 Plymouth Colony list of freemen [PCR 8:173], then erased and entered in Marshfield section of same list [PCR 8:177, 195].  In Marshfield section of 1658 and 29 May 1670 lists of Plymouth Colony freemen [PCR 5:277, 8:201].

EDUCATION:  The inventory of his estate included “1 Great Bible & psalm book,” 8s., “1 book of Ursinus on Christian Religion,” 9s., “2 books of Mr. Burrowghes,” 6s., “1 book of Mr. Weemes,” 2s. 6d., “1 book called Bloody Tenett,” 2s., and “26 old books,” 6s.

OFFICES:  Deputy for Marshfield to Plymouth General Court, 6 June 1643, 10 October 1643, 5 March 1643/4, 3 March 1645/6, 1 June 1647, 5 June 1651 [PCR 2:57, 63, 68, 95, 117, 168].  Council of War, 5 June 1671 [PCR 5:64, 73].  Marshfield selectman, 3 June 1674 [PCR 5:144].

 In Marshfield section of 1643 Plymouth Colony list of men able to bear arms [PCR 8:196].

ESTATE:  Granted one hundred acres at Teticutt, 4 March 1673/4 (pursuant to an order of June 1662 [PCR 5:141].

In his will, dated 12 April 1673 and proved 4 March 1674/5, “Josiah Winslow of the town of Marshfield Senior” appointed “Margarett my dear and loving wife my sole executrix” and bequeathed to her for life “one half of my dwelling house … and one half of the orchard and outhousing and also the one half of the land thereunto belonging, both meadow and upland, … in the town of Marshfield … and the one half of all the lands belonging to me, by any grant granted to me formerly or to be granted”; “for the other part of my lands, house and housing I do give unto my natural son Jonathan Winslow … with that half given to my wife after her decease … but in case the said Jonathan shall die without heirs … the whole and every part of the said lands and housing shall be disposed of [after the decease of Jonathan’s wife] unto my four daughters and their heirs”; to “Hannah Miller my grandchild now living with me, if she continue with her grandmother during her life, or day of the said Hannah her marriage,” moveables; “for my Indian apprentice I leave him and his time to my wife”; to “my grandchildren” ten shillings apiece; to “my faithful and truly loving friend Mr. Samuell Arnold our Reverend Teacher my black cloak”; to “my son Jonathan my best suit and what bedding he now makes use of and the Bible that is mine”; “my loving nephew Major Josiah Winslow and Captain William Bradford” to be overseers [MD 34:33-34, citing PCPR 3:1:131-32].

The inventory of the estate of “Mr. Josiah Winslow deceased,” taken 17 December 1674, totalled ú107 16s. 1[illegible]d.; the real estate, not valued, was “one dwelling house and one hundred acres of upland without housing thereon and a considerable parcel or parcels of meadow belonging thereunto the quantity unknown to us” in Marshfield, also “1 hundred acres of upland lying in the town of Middleberry or Bridgwater near Teticutt River” [MD 34:34-35, citing PCPR 3:1:135, 136, 138].

On 1 March 1674/5 “[w]hereas the last will and testament of Mr. Josiah Winslow, Senior, deceased, the 12th day of the 2cond month, 1673, was presented unto the Court to be proved: Before probate of which caution was presented, grounded on sundry testimonies upon oath, whereby it did appear unto this Court that Mr. Josias Winslow, Senior, aforesaid, his house, and all his lands lying and being in Marhsfeild, were given by him the said Josias Winslow unto his son and heir, Jonathan Winslow, in frank marriage unto Ruth, the daughter of Mr. Will[i]am Serjeant, which said house and lands in Marshfeild are again devised by his last will and testament unto his son, Jonathan Winslow, in tail; the Court apprehending that a man cannot by his last will and testament defeat and make void a gift of lands made unto his son and heir in frank marriage, but that such gift is extinct, and made void by a former gift in frank marriage, and therefore do declare that part of the will, so far as the disposal of the said house and land, to be a void gift, and do order that the abovesaid testimonies upon oath to be herewith recorded, and the rest of the said will abovesaid to stand valid, and do grant letters of administration unto Mistress Margarett Winslow, executrix to the said will, and do request the honored Governor to take her oath to the inventory of the estate” [PCR 5:159-60].

BIRTH:  Baptized Droitwich, Worcestershire, 16 February 1605/6; bp. there 16 February 1605/6, son of Edward and Magdalen (Oliver) Winslow [NEHGR 4:297, 21:210].

DEATH:  Buried Marshfield 1 December 1674 in his sixty-ninth year [MarVR 9].

MARRIAGE:  By 1637 Margaret Bourne, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (_____) Bourne [Waterman Gen 1:615-16, 619].  She died 28 September 1683, aged seventy-five years [PChR 1:250], and was buried at Marshfield on 2 October 1683 [MarVR 14].

CHILDREN:

i) ELIZABETH, b. Marshfield 24 September 1637 [MarVR 2]; no further record.

ii) JONATHAN, b. Marshfield 8 August 1639 [MarVR 2]; m. by 1664 Ruth Sargent (eldest child b. Marshfield 1 March 1664 [MarVR 7]; Josiah Winslow gave his Marshfield land “unto his son and heir, Jonathan Winslow, in frank marriage unto Ruth, the daughter of Mr. Will[i]am Serjeant” [PCR 5:159]).

iii) MARGARET, b. Marshfield 15 (or 16) July 1640 [MarVR 2; NEHGR 51:33]; m. Marshfield 24 December 1659 John Miller [NEHGR 51:33-34].

iv) REBECCA, b. Marshfield 15 July 1643 [MarVR 2]; m. by 1665 John Thatcher (eldest child) b. Yarmouth 20 May 1665 [MD 13:221]).  (Savage gives the date of this marriage as 6 November 1661, at Marshfield, but this event does not appear in the Marshfield records.)

v) HANNAH, b. Marshfield 30 November 1644 [MarVR 2]; m. (1) Plymouth 5 April 1664 William Crow [MD 17:185]; m. (2) by 1687 John Sturtevant (eldest known child b. Plymouth 10 April 1687 [MD 1:145, 17:185]).

vi) MARY, b. say 1646; m. Marshfield 10 June 1670 John Tracy [MarVR 427].

ASSOCIATIONS:  Brother of EDWARD WINSLOW, JOHN WINSLOW, GILBERT WINSLOW and KENELM WINSLOW.

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Spouse:                   Margaret Bourne, 7G Grandmother (abt 1608-28 Sep 1683)

Birth:                      abt 1608

Birth Place:              Kempsey, Worcestershire, England

Death:                     28 Sep 1683, age: 75

Death Place:             Marshfield, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     2 Oct 1683

Burial Place:             buried Marshfield, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Father:                     Thomas Bourne, 8G Grandfather (abt 1581-11 May 1664)

Mother:                   Elizabeth Rouse, 8G Grandmother (bef 1590-18 Jul 1660)

Marriage:                 abt 1636

Marr Place:              Marshfield Township, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts

1 Child…

                              Hannah (Nov 1644-1 Mar 1708)

(2) 1.1a Hannah Winslow*1, 6G Grandmother

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Birth:                      Nov 16442,2

Birth Place:              Marshfield Township, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts

Death:                     1 Mar 1708, age: 63

Death Place:             Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Mar 17083,3

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  Mrs. Hannah STURTEVANT, died in March 1708/09, aged about 64 years.”

Father:                     Josiah Winslow, 7G Grandfather (11 Feb 1605/06-1 Dec 1674)

Mother:                   Margaret Bourne, 7G Grandmother (abt 1608-28 Sep 1683)

Misc. Notes: Hannah’s husbands, William Crowe and John Sturtevant, were cousins.264

On 5 Apr 1664 when Hannah was 19, she first married William Crowe in Plymouth, MA.3 Born ca 1629.

On 1 Apr 1684 when Hannah was 39, she second married John Sturtevant (16240) , son of Samuel Sturtevant (ca 1620-16 Oct 1669) & Ann Lee (6041) (ca 1625-between 25 Jun 1716 and 12 Sep 1716), in Plymouth, MA. Born on 6 Sep 1658 in Plymouth, MA.3 John died in Plymouth, MA, on 4 Feb 1752; he was 93.26 “M^r John Sturtevant Sen^r Deceased Feb^ry y^e 4. 1752 N. S. Aged Ninety Three years, & five Months”.

John and Hannah were buryied on the hill top immediately east of where the watch house once stood.264

Spouse:                   John Sturtevant, 6G Grandfather (6 Sep 1658-4 Feb 1752)

Birth:                      6 Sep 1658

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     4 Feb 1752, age: 933,3

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Feb 17523,3

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads: “John STURTEVANT, died Feb. 4, 1752, about 92 years & [5 months]; footstone reads:  Jo[hn]/Sturtevant/1752

Baptism:                  bef

Father:                     Samuel Sturtevant, 7G Grandfather (1622-16 Oct 1669)

Mother:                   Ann Lee, 7G Grandmother (1625-16 Oct 1669)

Marriage:                 1 Apr 1684

Marr Place:              Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

2 Children…

                              Hannah (10 Apr 1687-27 May 1756)

                              John (1689-)

Other spouses:          William Crowe

(3) 1.1a.1 Hannah Sturtevant4,4, 5G Grandmother

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Birth:                      10 Apr 16874,4

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts

Death:                     27 May 1756, age: 694,4

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts

Burial:                     May 17565,5

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  Mrs. Hannah COTTON, wife of Josiah Cotton, Esq, died May 27, 1756, aged 69 years & 1 month.”  Footstone reads:  “Mrs Hannah / Cotton / 1756”

Father:                     John Sturtevant, 6G Grandfather (6 Sep 1658-4 Feb 1752)

Mother:                   Hannah Winslow, 6G Grandmother (Nov 1644-1 Mar 1708)

Josiah Cotton

Spouse:                   Josiah Cotton, 5G Grandfather (8 Jan 1679-19 Aug 1756)

Birth:                      8 Jan 16794,6,4,6

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts

Death:                     19 Aug 1756, age: 774,4

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Aug 17564,7,5,4,7,5

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Hon. Josiah COTTON, Esq., died Aug. 19, 1756, aged 76 years & 7 months.”  Footstone reads:  The Honrble / Josiah Cotton / 1756

Father:                     Rev. John Cotton Jr., 6G Grandfather (15 Jan 1639-18 Sep 1699)

Mother:                   Joanna Rossiter, 6G Grandmother (Jul 1642-12 Oct 1702)

Brief Bio: The Hon. Josiah Cotton was son of John Cotton, some time minister of Plymouth, and grandson of John Cotton, minister in Boston. He was born in Plymouth, Jan. 8th, 1679, and graduated at Harvard College in 1698, and became a teacher of a school in Marblehead, in October fol lowing, where he preached his first sermon, September, 1702. In 1704, he discontinued preaching and re turned to his native town, where he was a school in- structer for seven years. This respectable man held, at different times, several civil offices in the county, as clerk of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, Justice of the same court, Register of Probate, and Register of Deeds. He was also occasionally employed as a preacher to the Indians in Plymouth and the vicinity, having acquired a competent acquaintance with their language. He was the author of the Supplement to the New England Memorial. He left a Diary, which he began in his youth, soon after he left college, and continued nearly to the time of his decease. It is in the possession of his grandson, Rosseter Cotton, Esq. the present Register of Deeds for the county of Plymouth. It contains many historical facts, which it would be desirable to have extracted and presented to the Massachusetts Historical, or to the Pilgrim Society, for preservation. Mr. Cotton died in 1756, aged 76 years, leaving a numerous progeny. He possessed a strong and sound mind, and was fervently pious, and indefatigable in the discharge of all the duties of his various and honorable stations in life.8Josiah Cotton

Josiah Cotton, schoolmaster, Indian missionary, and public servant, was born January 8, 1679/80, a son of the Reverend John Cotton (A.B. 1657), and a nephew of Cotton Mather. His mother’s maiden name was Jane Rossiter. When Josiah was nine a lady of the congregation found him in one of her trees, yanked him out “with her hand, and then threw him over the fence . . . the child fell flat upon the ground by her pulling him by the leg. . . .”1 In spite of a youth occupied by narrow escapes from drowning in a tub, in a well, and in the ocean, in addition to being run over by a cart and falling out of trees, he found time to learn to read without going to school. He studied Latin successively under the Reverend Mr. Wiswall of Duxbury, who went to England; under the Reverend Jonathan Russell of Barnstable, who sent him to Boston to the school of Joseph Dassett, who shortly died; and under Wiswall again, who sent him back to Boston to Peter Burr’s school. Thence Josiah was admitted to college in June, 1694, and assigned to John Leverett as tutor and William Brattle as patron. His statement “thro. Favour, not merit I happened to be placed second of the Class Mr Symes being the first,” is one of the few bits of direct evidence we have of the principles of the class order. It is also Cotton who informs us that in his time it was customary for “many of the scholars to draw off in the winter.” He spent the winter of his freshman year studying under Eliphalet Adams at Taunton, the next winter teaching school at Plymouth under his father’s direction in the parsonage and at the town charge; the third winter he continued in college, and the fourth he “dwelt and studed at home.” Of his life at college, he tells: I learnt (among other arts) to smoke it, but might have improved my time much better, for so much time is consumed in sleeping and eating and other necessary diversions of life, that we have no need to continue those that are altogether needless. This is a practice I should not have run readily into at home, for my Father and Mother never inclined to it, but example abroad brought me into it. Howsoever our Class did some penance about this time for some of their faults being obliged to recite at five o’clock in the winter mornings that Mr Leverett might seasonably attend the General Court at Boston, being Representative for the town of Cambridge.2

From the college records it appears that Josiah was a quiet student, although he paid one fine of 5s 6d, and spent a good deal for commons and sizings in an erratic fashion. His diary enables us to make the only personal attribution of a Bachelor’s commencement thesis in his college generation. Under the moderation of President Mather, Cotton as respondent and Hubbard as opponent disputed on the thesis “Cometos [sic] sunt meteora,” indicating that the astronomy of Gassendi was then taught at Harvard. At his Master’s Commencement Cotton took a theological question “An Detur in non Renatis liberum arbitrium ad bonum Spirituale?” He denied that free will was of any use to the unconverted.

From Josiah Cotton’s diary it appears that after taking his first degree he did a surprising amount of traveling up and down New England. On one of these trips he visited Marblehead where on October 17, 1698, he was invited to settle and keep school. His salary was 15l a year from the town and a groat a week “according to their learning for each scholar.” He also picked up money “Writing Indentures for Jersey Boys and Girls,” for whom the going price was 12l.3 Altogether he made the handsome sum of 50l a year in silver, but he had some difficulty in the matter of board:

I kept at Capt Browne’s and Capt Brattle’s, where I was his Chaplain, and about three months boarded myself in the schoolhouse; but dwelt longest at the minister’s, Mr Cheever’s where were my first and last quarters. . . . When I came to the place I was raw and young, not 19 years old, and therefore it is not so much to be wondered at, if I gave way too much to that extravagance, Intemperance, Negligence in Religion, and Disorderliness, that is too rife in that place. . . . I studied divinity, read over the Greek and Latin Testament with some annotations, and first preached at Marblehead Nov 23, 1701. . . and was admitted to the church at Marblehead Sept. 6, 1703.4

In July, 1704, Cotton took his leave of Marblehead, and after visiting Connecticut went to his brother Roland’s (A.B. 1685) at Sandwich to teach Latin grammar to his nephews John Cotton and John Denison (both A.B. 1710). During the fall he kept school at Sandwich, and during the winter preached at Yarmouth. He thought of settling in the ministry but found writing sermons very fatiguing and a strain on his health, for he “had then a lingering headache always attending him.” Consequently he accepted an invitation to teach school at Plymouth at 40l a year, and began on November 2, 1705, in the house in which he had been born, the use of which he gave to the town until it built a schoolhouse. For two years he boarded with Thomas Little (A.B. 1695), and occasionally assisted the Reverend Ephraim Little (A.B. 1695) in preaching. Thus he became acquainted with the minister’s cousin, Hannah Sturtevant, to whom he was married on January 8, 1707/8. He described his wife as “a person not ill natured, of honest principles, true to her friends, and one that has brought me well favored and I hope well disposed children.” In the next year he gave up the school and moved to a farm which he had bought about two miles north of the town, but making a poor hand of farming, resumed teaching in November, 1711. In the spring of 1713 he succeeded Thomas Little as clerk of the Inferior Court and Register of Deeds and keeper of the Colony Records, but after a year was forced out of office by Little’s brother, and again returned to keeping school. In 1715 he was restored to office, and in succeeding years he became justice of the peace and quorum, Register of Probate, Notary Public, and Register of Deeds, special justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and justice of the Inferior Court. In 1721, 1723, and 1727 he was elected to the House of Representatives.

The salaries and fees attached to these offices permitted the Cottons to return to their farm. For seventeen years Josiah had been the leading citizen of Plymouth when, in 1739, he suddenly dropped from the service of the town. No reason is apparent; he had once cast “sundrey reflecttions upon the Selectmen” in regard to their treatment of smallpox;5 he had some trouble with the minister over the revival meetings of Andrew Croswell (A.B. 1728); and he had aroused opposition by a proposal to distribute gratis copies of Hale’s book on witches “as a service acceptable to God and profitable to future generations”; but this would not explain a seclusion from which not even threats of prosecution if he did not continue to serve as assessor could move him. He continued to serve as a justice of the Inferior Court until 1747 when, he writes, his resignation was occasioned by his “growing forgetfulness and decays of mind.”

To Mr. Cotton, the important part of his life was not the holding of these offices, but his faithful labors in preaching to the Indians for half a century. Before he took up the Plymouth school he had begun to learn the Indian language so as to follow in his father’s footsteps as a missionary. He traveled constantly over Plymouth Colony, preaching on the average twenty Sundays a year. He compiled an Indian dictionary and translated one of Mather’s sermons into that language. For a part of the time he received a salary of 20l a year from the Commissioners for Propagating the Gospel in New England. Although he found the savages inclined to be frolicsome, and time and again he wrote that little, if anything, was being accomplished, he persisted in the work. In 1744, he writes, the Commissioners “gave me a dismission, because the Indians did not attend; a business I had been in about 39 years.”

Josiah and Hannah Cotton had fourteen children: Hannah, b. Apr. 3, 1709; m. Thompson Phillips, Sept. 30, 1725; d. Oct. 27, 1731. Mary, b. Aug. 14, 1710; m. John Cushing of Scituate, 1729. John, b. Apr. 5, 1712; A.B. 1730; m. Hannah Sturtevant Dec. 9, 1746; d. 1789. Bethiah, b. June 8, 1714; m. Abiell Pulsifer Mar. 1, 1732/3; d. Sept. 20, 1735. Theophilus, b. Mar. 31, 1716; m. Martha Saunders Oct. 27, 1742; d. Feb. 1782. Lucy, b. Feb. 19, 1717/8; m. Charles Dyer Mar. 25, 1736. Josiah, b. Nov. 18, 1724; entered Harvard with Class of 1740; lost at sea 1745. Margaret, b. Jan. 23, 1729/30; m. Thomas Sawyer of North Carolina. Rowland, b. Sept. 13, 1732. Five others died in infancy.6 With this experience, Cotton writes that a man’s children are “himself multiplied; and the greater the sum the better, provided they take good courses and are faithful in their generation. Happy is the man that has his quiver full of them.”

Josiah Cotton died August 19, 1756, according to his gravestone, and August 27, according to the Boston Weekly News-Letter of September 16, 1756.

Works

Josiah Cotton in 1728 wrote a sketch of his life and of the Cotton family, and thereafter brought it up to date each year. This Ms., referred to as the Diary, was used by historians of the last century, and a copy of it was made by William G. Brooks, but both have been lost for twenty-five years. Parts of it have been published in Roads’s History of Marblehead and in the Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, as noticed above. Another Ms. by Cotton, described as a Diary of the years 1732-1756, has recently been lost from the papers of the late Arthur Lord. The M. H. S. has several personal letters from Josiah to Rowland Cotton, some legal documents, the notes for an Indian sermon, the Ms. of his printed ‘Vocabulary,’ and an interesting detailed account of services among the Indians in 1716-17. In the Curwin Mss. at the A. A. S. are numerous letters addressed to him, calendared under the senders.

A Vocabulary of the Massachusetts (or Natick) Indian Language. Cambridge, 1829. pp. 112, (1). Also printed in 3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. II, 147-257 (1830).

Supplement to the second (1721) and later editions of Nathaniel Morton, New-England’s Memorial.

1. Plymouth Church Records (Publications Colonial Soc. Mass.), I, 266.

2. Publ. C.S.M. XXVI, 279-80. The following extracts are from a Ms. copy of the same diary, both now lost.

3. Letters and Papers 1632-1776, Mass. Hist. Soc., 71 H 168.

4. Parts of Cotton’s diary relating to his stay at Marblehead are printed in Samuel Roads, History and Traditions of Marblehead (Boston, 1880), pp. 37-40.

5. Records of the Town of Plymouth (Plymouth, 1889-1903), II, 212.

6. These are chiefly from William G. Brooks’s Ms. Genealogy of the Cotton Family, p. 74, M. H. S., corrected by town records. According to Cotton’s diary, however, he had but twelve children.

Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, 4:398-402.

Josiah Cotton

(Harvard, 1698)

Josiah Cotton, schoolmaster, Indian missionary, and public servant, was born January 8, 1679/80, a son of the Reverend John Cotton (A.B. 1657), and a nephew of Cotton Mather. His mother’s maiden name was Jane Rossiter. When Josiah was nine a lady of the congregation found him in one of her trees, yanked him out “with her hand, and then threw him over the fence . . . the child fell flat upon the ground by her pulling him by the leg. . . .”1 In spite of a youth occupied by narrow escapes from drowning in a tub, in a well, and in the ocean, in addition to being run over by a cart and falling out of trees, he found time to learn to read without going to school. He studied Latin successively under the Reverend Mr. Wiswall of Duxbury, who went to England; under the Reverend Jonathan Russell of Barnstable, who sent him to Boston to the school of Joseph Dassett, who shortly died; and under Wiswall again, who sent him back to Boston to Peter Burr’s school. Thence Josiah was admitted to college in June, 1694, and assigned to John Leverett as tutor and William Brattle as patron. His statement “thro. Favour, not merit I happened to be placed second of the Class Mr Symes being the first,” is one of the few bits of direct evidence we have of the principles of the class order. It is also Cotton who informs us that in his time it was customary for “many of the scholars to draw off in the winter.” He spent the winter of his freshman year studying under Eliphalet Adams at Taunton, the next winter teaching school at Plymouth under his father’s direction in the parsonage and at the town charge; the third winter he continued in college, and the fourth he “dwelt and studed at home.” Of his life at college, he tells: I learnt (among other arts) to smoke it, but might have improved my time much better, for so much time is consumed in sleeping and eating and other necessary diversions of life, that we have no need to continue those that are altogether needless. This is a practice I should not have run readily into at home, for my Father and Mother never inclined to it, but example abroad brought me into it. Howsoever our Class did some penance about this time for some of their faults being obliged to recite at five o’clock in the winter mornings that Mr Leverett might seasonably attend the General Court at Boston, being Representative for the town of Cambridge.2

From the college records it appears that Josiah was a quiet student, although he paid one fine of 5s 6d, and spent a good deal for commons and sizings in an erratic fashion. His diary enables us to make the only personal attribution of a Bachelor’s commencement thesis in his college generation. Under the moderation of President Mather, Cotton as respondent and Hubbard as opponent disputed on the thesis “Cometos [sic] sunt meteora,” indicating that the astronomy of Gassendi was then taught at Harvard. At his Master’s Commencement Cotton took a theological question “An Detur in non Renatis liberum arbitrium ad bonum Spirituale?” He denied that free will was of any use to the unconverted.

From Josiah Cotton’s diary it appears that after taking his first degree he did a surprising amount of traveling up and down New England. On one of these trips he visited Marblehead where on October 17, 1698, he was invited to settle and keep school. His salary was 15l a year from the town and a groat a week “according to their learning for each scholar.” He also picked up money “Writing Indentures for Jersey Boys and Girls,” for whom the going price was 12l.3 Altogether he made the handsome sum of 50l a year in silver, but he had some difficulty in the matter of board:

I kept at Capt Browne’s and Capt Brattle’s, where I was his Chaplain, and about three months boarded myself in the schoolhouse; but dwelt longest at the minister’s, Mr Cheever’s where were my first and last quarters. . . . When I came to the place I was raw and young, not 19 years old, and therefore it is not so much to be wondered at, if I gave way too much to that extravagance, Intemperance, Negligence in Religion, and Disorderliness, that is too rife in that place. . . . I studied divinity, read over the Greek and Latin Testament with some annotations, and first preached at Marblehead Nov 23, 1701. . . and was admitted to the church at Marblehead Sept. 6, 1703.4

In July, 1704, Cotton took his leave of Marblehead, and after visiting Connecticut went to his brother Roland’s (A.B. 1685) at Sandwich to teach Latin grammar to his nephews John Cotton and John Denison (both A.B. 1710). During the fall he kept school at Sandwich, and during the winter preached at Yarmouth. He thought of settling in the ministry but found writing sermons very fatiguing and a strain on his health, for he “had then a lingering headache always attending him.” Consequently he accepted an invitation to teach school at Plymouth at 40l a year, and began on November 2, 1705, in the house in which he had been born, the use of which he gave to the town until it built a schoolhouse. For two years he boarded with Thomas Little (A.B. 1695), and occasionally assisted the Reverend Ephraim Little (A.B. 1695) in preaching. Thus he became acquainted with the minister’s cousin, Hannah Sturtevant, to whom he was married on January 8, 1707/8. He described his wife as “a person not ill natured, of honest principles, true to her friends, and one that has brought me well favored and I hope well disposed children.” In the next year he gave up the school and moved to a farm which he had bought about two miles north of the town, but making a poor hand of farming, resumed teaching in November, 1711. In the spring of 1713 he succeeded Thomas Little as clerk of the Inferior Court and Register of Deeds and keeper of the Colony Records, but after a year was forced out of office by Little’s brother, and again returned to keeping school. In 1715 he was restored to office, and in succeeding years he became justice of the peace and quorum, Register of Probate, Notary Public, and Register of Deeds, special justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and justice of the Inferior Court. In 1721, 1723, and 1727 he was elected to the House of Representatives.

The salaries and fees attached to these offices permitted the Cottons to return to their farm. For seventeen years Josiah had been the leading citizen of Plymouth when, in 1739, he suddenly dropped from the service of the town. No reason is apparent; he had once cast “sundrey reflecttions upon the Selectmen” in regard to their treatment of smallpox;5 he had some trouble with the minister over the revival meetings of Andrew Croswell (A.B. 1728); and he had aroused opposition by a proposal to distribute gratis copies of Hale’s book on witches “as a service acceptable to God and profitable to future generations”; but this would not explain a seclusion from which not even threats of prosecution if he did not continue to serve as assessor could move him. He continued to serve as a justice of the Inferior Court until 1747 when, he writes, his resignation was occasioned by his “growing forgetfulness and decays of mind.”

To Mr. Cotton, the important part of his life was not the holding of these offices, but his faithful labors in preaching to the Indians for half a century. Before he took up the Plymouth school he had begun to learn the Indian language so as to follow in his father’s footsteps as a missionary. He traveled constantly over Plymouth Colony, preaching on the average twenty Sundays a year. He compiled an Indian dictionary and translated one of Mather’s sermons into that language. For a part of the time he received a salary of 20l a year from the Commissioners for Propagating the Gospel in New England. Although he found the savages inclined to be frolicsome, and time and again he wrote that little, if anything, was being accomplished, he persisted in the work. In 1744, he writes, the Commissioners “gave me a dismission, because the Indians did not attend; a business I had been in about 39 years.”

Josiah and Hannah Cotton had fourteen children: Hannah, b. Apr. 3, 1709; m. Thompson Phillips, Sept. 30, 1725; d. Oct. 27, 1731. Mary, b. Aug. 14, 1710; m. John Cushing of Scituate, 1729. John, b. Apr. 5, 1712; A.B. 1730; m. Hannah Sturtevant Dec. 9, 1746; d. 1789. Bethiah, b. June 8, 1714; m. Abiell Pulsifer Mar. 1, 1732/3; d. Sept. 20, 1735. Theophilus, b. Mar. 31, 1716; m. Martha Saunders Oct. 27, 1742; d. Feb. 1782. Lucy, b. Feb. 19, 1717/8; m. Charles Dyer Mar. 25, 1736. Josiah, b. Nov. 18, 1724; entered Harvard with Class of 1740; lost at sea 1745. Margaret, b. Jan. 23, 1729/30; m. Thomas Sawyer of North Carolina. Rowland, b. Sept. 13, 1732. Five others died in infancy.6 With this experience, Cotton writes that a man’s children are “himself multiplied; and the greater the sum the better, provided they take good courses and are faithful in their generation. Happy is the man that has his quiver full of them.”

Josiah Cotton died August 19, 1756, according to his gravestone, and August 27, according to the Boston Weekly News-Letter of September 16, 1756.

Works

Josiah Cotton in 1728 wrote a sketch of his life and of the Cotton family, and thereafter brought it up to date each year. This Ms., referred to as the Diary, was used by historians of the last century, and a copy of it was made by William G. Brooks, but both have been lost for twenty-five years. Parts of it have been published in Roads’s History of Marblehead and in the Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, as noticed above. Another Ms. by Cotton, described as a Diary of the years 1732-1756, has recently been lost from the papers of the late Arthur Lord. The M. H. S. has several personal letters from Josiah to Rowland Cotton, some legal documents, the notes for an Indian sermon, the Ms. of his printed ‘Vocabulary,’ and an interesting detailed account of services among the Indians in 1716-17. In the Curwin Mss. at the A. A. S. are numerous letters addressed to him, calendared under the senders.

A Vocabulary of the Massachusetts (or Natick) Indian Language. Cambridge, 1829. pp. 112, (1). Also printed in 3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. II, 147-257 (1830).

Supplement to the second (1721) and later editions of Nathaniel Morton, New-England’s Memorial.

1. Plymouth Church Records (Publications Colonial Soc. Mass.), I, 266.

2. Publ. C.S.M. XXVI, 279-80. The following extracts are from a Ms. copy of the same diary, both now lost.

3. Letters and Papers 1632-1776, Mass. Hist. Soc., 71 H 168.

4. Parts of Cotton’s diary relating to his stay at Marblehead are printed in Samuel Roads, History and Traditions of Marblehead (Boston, 1880), pp. 37-40.

5. Records of the Town of Plymouth (Plymouth, 1889-1903), II, 212.

6. These are chiefly from William G. Brooks’s Ms. Genealogy of the Cotton Family, p. 74, M. H. S., corrected by town records. According to Cotton’s diary, however, he had but twelve children.

Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, 4:398-402.

Marriage:                 8 Jan 17079,10

Marr Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts

15 Children…

                              Hannah (3 Apr 1709-27 Oct 1731)

                              Mary (14 Aug 1710-4 Nov 1789)

                              Rev. John (5 Apr 1712-4 Nov 1789)

                              Bethia (8 Jun 1714-25 Sep 1735)

                              Colonel Theophilus (31 Mar 1716-18 Feb 1782)

                              Lucy (19 Feb 1717/18-)

                              Josiah (19 Jan 1719-1 Aug 1719)

                              UNNAMED (3 May 1721-28 May 1721)

                              Edward (20 Jul 1722-20 Jul 1722)

                              Josiah (30 Jul 1723-23 Oct 1723)

                              Josiah (18 Nov 1724-22 Dec 1745)

                              Edward (6 Apr 1726-20 Jun 1726)

                              Rowland (27 Jul 1727-10 Aug 1727)

                              Margaret (23 Jan 1730-Nov 1789)

                              Rowland (13 Sep 1732-1734)

(4) 1.1a.1.1a Hannah Cotton*, GGGG Grandaunt

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      3 Apr 1709

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Massachusetts

Death:                     27 Oct 1731, age: 22

Death Place:             Boston, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Oct 17315,5

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Mrs Hannah DYRE, died Oct. 27, 1731, aged abut 22 1/2 years.  Late wife to Capt. William Dyre and formerly wife to Capt Tomson PHILLIPS who was drowned at se[a] De{c] 17[2]9.”  Footstone reads:  “Mrs / Hannah DYRE / Decd 1731”

Father:                     Josiah Cotton, 5G Grandfather (8 Jan 1679-19 Aug 1756)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 5G Grandmother (10 Apr 1687-27 May 1756)

Spouse:                   Captain Tomson Phillips (bef 1690-Dec 1729)

Birth:                      bef 169011,11

Birth Place:              Jamaica West Indies

Death:                     Dec 1729, age: 3911,11

Death Place:             drowned at sea off Jamaica, West Indies

Brief Bio: Cotton, “Account of the Cotton Family,” 246. Phillips was born sometime before 1690, the year in which his father, George-a shipwright who migrated from Barbados to Middletown in the 167os-died. Shortly thereafter, his mother remarried a mariner named John Thompson. Designated administrator of George Phillips’ s estate, Thompson was both a family friend and the man for whom Thompson Phillips was named. With a history of family seafaring behind them, Phillips and his older brother George began careers in maritime trade. At the time of his marriage to Hannah Cotton, Phillips was listed as living in Jamaica, where he owned property on “Handwas Bay.” Aged sixteen at the time of her marriage in 1725, Hannah was nearly two decades younger than her future husband. See Ruth Wilder Shuman, ed., and Lee D. van Antwerp, comp., Vital Records of Plymouth, Massachusetts, to the Year I850 (Camden, Me., 1993); Plymouth County Probate Records (microfilm) , 6:155, Mass. Arch. (hereafter cited as PCPR); Plymouth Deeds, 20:182, Plymouth County Registry of Probate and Deeds, Plymouth, Massachusetts (hereafter cited as PD); Cotton, “Account of the Cotton Family,” 246; Charles William Manwaring, comp., A Digest of the Early Connecticut Probate Records, 3 vols. (Hartford, 1904-1906), 1:496; and Edwin Stearns, comp., “Phillips Family, Middletown, Connecticut,” Genealogical Manuscripts, Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford. I thank Martha H. Smart for directing my attention to these last two documents.

Phillips continued to sail his schooners back and forth to Jamaica during the late 1720s, trading in fish, raw materials, finished goods, and, occasionally, West Indian slaves. Then, on December 6, 1729, the captain was “washt off the Deck with his Spanish Indian Servant … at Sea in the Night & never heard of nor seen more.”19 Following the captain’s death, his young widow remarried a second mariner named William Dyre and moved to Boston with her young daughter-the only child of her first marriage. One year later, tragedy struck again. In the span of a single week Hannah contracted smallpox and died. The sudden passing of his daughter greatly distressed Cotton, who missed her burial while traveling in Maine. “A Sad and gloomy day!” he lamented, “When a Person so Young Strong & amiable was so soon & suddenly taken away …. The Other (6) Children that I have lost made Some Impression on Me, but Nothing like this.” Following Hannah Dyre’s death, the care of her “Stately Daughter”-four-year-old Hannah Phillipsdevolved on Cotton. He brought his orphaned granddaughter back to Plymouth and presented her for baptism on December 26, 173i.20

Marriage:                 30 Sep 172511

Marr Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

1 Child…

                              Hannah (20 Jul 1728-)

Other spouses:          Captain William Dyer

(5) 1.1a.1.1a.1 Hannah Phillips, 1C5R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      20 Jul 172812

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township,  Massachusetts

Baptism:                  26 Dec 1731, age: 313

Bapt Place:               Plymouth Township,  Massachusetts

Father:                     Captain Tomson Phillips (bef 1690-Dec 1729)

Mother:                   Hannah Cotton, GGGG Grandaunt (3 Apr 1709-27 Oct 1731)

Spouse:                   George L. Phillips (22 Oct 1717-26 Feb 1778)

Birth:                      22 Oct 171712

Birth Place:              Middletown, CT

Death:                     26 Feb 1778, age: 6012

Misc. Notes: Hannah Phillips. Born on 20 Jun 1728 in Middletown, CT. Hannah died in Mar 1769 in Boston, MA.

From the Scituate Vital Records:48 Hannah Philips and George Phillips of Middleton were married 5 May 174[8].

George and Hannah were first cousins; their fathers were brothers.

On 5 May 1748 when Hannah was 19, she married George L. Phillips (29062) , son of Capt. George Phillips (ca 1674-8 Oct 1747) & Hope Stow (13840) (10 Sep 1679-18 Mar 1747), in Scituate, MA.48 Born on 22 Aug 1717 in Middletown, CT. George L. died in Middletown, CT, on 26 Feb 1778; he was 60.

Their children include:

Hannah Phillips (31 Jul 1754-12 May 1834)

Marriage:                 5 May 1748

Marr Place:              Scituate Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

1 Child…

                              Hannah (31 Jul 1754-12 May 1834)

(6) 1.1a.1.1a.1.1 Hannah Phillips, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

(See duplicate branch below)

(4) 1.1a.1.1b Hannah Cotton* (See above)

_____________________________________________________________

Spouse:                   Captain William Dyer, 3C7R

Father:                     John Dyer (17 Feb 1670-18 Oct 1741)

Mother:                   Hannah Morton, 2C8R (27 Nov 1668-23 Dec 1733)

Misc. Notes: 61. William Dyer 86 (John12, John [Twin]3, Thomas1) was born after 1694 in Boston, Suffolk, Mass and died between 1739 and 1741 in Plymouth, Plymouth, Ma.

William married Hannah Cotton 178 179 on 18 May 1730 in Plymouth, Plymouth, Ma.,184 daughter of Josiah Cotton and Hannah Sturtevant. Hannah was born in 1709 and died on an unknown date.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 181 M    i. William Dyer was born on 8 Feb 1730/31 in Plymouth, Plymouth, Ma185 and died on an unknown date.

William next married Hannah Howland 186 on 29 Oct 1734 in Plymouth, Plymouth, Ma.,171 172 daughter of Thomas Howland and Joanna Cole. Hannah was born on 19 Dec 1712 in Plymouth, Plymouth, Ma187 and died on an unknown date.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 182 F    i. Hannah Dyer 86 was born on 21 May 1736 in Plymouth, Plymouth, Ma185 and died on 21 Jun 1737 in Plymouth, Plymouth, Ma185 at age 1.

+ 183 F    ii. Hannah Dyer 86 188 was born on 15 Sep 1737 in Plymouth, Plymouth, Ma185 189 and died on an unknown date.

Marriage:                 abt 173011

Marr Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Other spouses:          Captain Tomson Phillips

(4) 1.1a.1.2 Mary Cotton, GGGG Grandaunt

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      14 Aug 171014,14

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Massachusetts

Death:                     4 Nov 1789, age: 79

Death Place:             Scituate Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Josiah Cotton, 5G Grandfather (8 Jan 1679-19 Aug 1756)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 5G Grandmother (10 Apr 1687-27 May 1756)

Misc. Notes: Hon. John Cushing. Born on 17 Jul 1695 in Scituate, MA.48 John died in Scituate, MA, on 19 Mar 1778; he was 82.48 Occupation: judge. Education: Harvard 1711.

John first married Elizabeth Holmes, second Mary Cotton.

From the Genealogy of the Cushing Family, page 48:2

    John resided at Belle House in Scituate. He was Town Clerk from 1719 to 1744; representative from Scituate in 1721 and for several succeeding years; Judge of Probate Plymouth Co. 1739; Justice of the Court of Common Pleas (Plymouth Co.) from 1738 to 1751, when he was transferred to the Superior Court; Judge of the Superior Court from 1747 to 1771, when he resigned (Judge Cushing received his appointment to the Supreme Court from Washington); and a Councillor of the Province from 1746 to 1763. ‘His introduction into the office (of Councillor) was attended with a more unanimous vote than any ever before had–having all the votes save one.’— Rev. Josiah Cotton. He was one of the presiding Judges at the trial of the British soldiers for the massacre at Boston 5 Mar 1770.

In 1743 John built the Walnut Tree Hill Mansion, a large and imposing building. The mansion burned in 1872.39

On 1 Apr 1718 when John was 22, he first married Elizabeth Holmes (40252) , daughter of Nathaniel Holmes (23581) (21 Jun 1664-11 Jul 1711) & Sarah Thaxter (25093) (26 Sep 1671-ca 1726), in Scituate, MA.48 Born on 15 Sep 1695 in Boston, MA.464 Elizabeth died in Scituate, MA, on 13 Mar 1726; she was 30.48

John and Elizabeth were second cousins; their maternal grandmothers were sisters.

Spouse:                   John Cushing (1710-)

Birth:                      1710

Father:                     John Cushing (28 Apr 1662-19 Jan 1735)

Mother:                   Debra Loring (15 Mar 1668-9 Jun 1713)

Misc. Notes: Hon. John Cushing. Born on 17 Jul 1695 in Scituate, MA.48 John died in Scituate, MA, on 19 Mar 1778; he was 82.48 Occupation: judge. Education: Harvard 1711.

John first married Elizabeth Holmes, second Mary Cotton.

From the Genealogy of the Cushing Family, page 48:2

    John resided at Belle House in Scituate. He was Town Clerk from 1719 to 1744; representative from Scituate in 1721 and for several succeeding years; Judge of Probate Plymouth Co. 1739; Justice of the Court of Common Pleas (Plymouth Co.) from 1738 to 1751, when he was transferred to the Superior Court; Judge of the Superior Court from 1747 to 1771, when he resigned (Judge Cushing received his appointment to the Supreme Court from Washington); and a Councillor of the Province from 1746 to 1763. ‘His introduction into the office (of Councillor) was attended with a more unanimous vote than any ever before had–having all the votes save one.’— Rev. Josiah Cotton. He was one of the presiding Judges at the trial of the British soldiers for the massacre at Boston 5 Mar 1770.

In 1743 John built the Walnut Tree Hill Mansion, a large and imposing building. The mansion burned in 1872.39

On 1 Apr 1718 when John was 22, he first married Elizabeth Holmes (40252) , daughter of Nathaniel Holmes (23581) (21 Jun 1664-11 Jul 1711) & Sarah Thaxter (25093) (26 Sep 1671-ca 1726), in Scituate, MA.48 Born on 15 Sep 1695 in Boston, MA.464 Elizabeth died in Scituate, MA, on 13 Mar 1726; she was 30.48

John and Elizabeth were second cousins; their maternal grandmothers were sisters.

Marriage:                 20 Nov 1729

1 Child…

                              William (1 Mar 1732-13 Sep 1810)

(5) 1.1a.1.2.1 William Cushing, 1C5R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      1 Mar 1732

Birth Place:              Scituate Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     13 Sep 1810, age: 78

Death Place:             Scituate Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     John Cushing (1710-)

Mother:                   Mary Cotton, GGGG Grandaunt (14 Aug 1710-4 Nov 1789)

Misc. Notes: Hon. William Cushing. Born on 1 Mar 1732 in Scituate, MA.48 William was baptized on 1 Mar 1732. William died in Scituate, MA, on 13 Sep 1810; he was 78.48 Occupation: Supreme Court justice. Education: Harvard 1751; A.M. Yale 1753, L.L.D. 1785.2

From the Genealogy of the Cushing Family, pages 92–94:2

William and Hannah left no descendants.

William was Preceptor of the public Grammar School in Roxbury in 1752, and studied law under J. Gridley. In 1755, he commenced practice in Pownalboro, which then comprehended the towns of Dresden and Wiscassett, residing with his brother Charles, and continued his practice there until elevated to the Bench. Of all the Judges and Officers of the Courts in the three counties and of the County Officers he was the solitary lawyer, he stood alone as an educated lawyer in this spacious territory and the first who settled in Maine. He was one of the six lawyers in Maine who were raised to the degree of Barrister. He was for a time Attorney General of Mass.; in 1768, was appointed the first Judge of Probate in Lincoln County and in 1772 made Judge of the Superior Court. At the re-organization of the Superior Court, Mass., 1777, he was appointed Chief Justice of the Court, the first who held the office under the free Government of the Commonwealth and labored with great success in establishing the judicial system on a firm basis. He became Judge of the Supreme Judicial Court, 1782. At the beginning of the Revolution, he alone among the high in office supported the rights of the Revolutionists. He was Vice-President of the Mass. Convention which ratified the U. S. Constitution in 1788. He was the first Chief Justice of the State under this Constitution, and at the organization of the U. S. Government in 1789 he was selected by Washington as an Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, in which office he eminently shone. While Associate Judge, he was accompanied in his circuit by Mrs. Cushing; he drove a phaeton and a pair of horses ans was followed by his negro man ‘Prince’ on horseback. During the mission of Chief Justice John Jay, Envoy Extraordinary to the Court of Great Britain, negotiating the famous treaty with that Country, Judge Cushing presided, and as Senior Justice administered the oath of office to Washington at the beginning of his second term as President, 4 March, 1793. In 1794 he was a candidate for Governor of Mass., a rival os Samuel Adams. John Adams said of him: ‘I shall be happier if Cushing succeeds, and the State will be more prudently conducted.’ In 1796, after Judge Jay’s resignation, he was nominated by Washington to the Chief Justice office, and this offer was unanimously confirmed by the Senate, 17 Jan., 1796, and on the evening of the same day was invited to him and said with great impressiveness: ‘The Chief Justice of the United States will please take his seat on my right.’ It is said that this was the first intimation that Cushing had of his selection. Nothing but a confidence in his ability and in his unshaken integrity could have united contending parties on that occasion; but notwithstanding this extraordinary expression of confidence, he declined the office on account of infirm health, but continued on the bench until 1810, when he had prepared an instrument of resignation, but was called to resign life. He was a man of tall and dignified presence, and as he moved along the streets with his cocked hat, bush wig and small clothers, he made an imposing appearance which attracted general attention. He was the last Chief Justice who wore the large wig of the English Judges. As a Judge he was eminently qualified by his learning and not less by his unshaken integrity and deliberate temper. It is said of him in 1801, that he performed the duties of his high office with order and perspicuity and guided the bar with mild, though commanding dignity. In private life he was all that was amiable, always ready to instruct by useful discourse and to make his friends happy with his cheerfulness. He diligently collected works of taste and (if we may judge by the numerous notes written with his own hand in margins) he read with the greatest care. He was a founder and member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was a learned theologian, well acquainted with the controversies of the day, and though far from gathering heat in those controversies, was conspicuously on the side of liberal Christianity. As an exemplary Christian, he was irreproachable, and as a public character, he is universally acknowledged to have stood in the first rank of his countrymen.

    A massive granite boulder marks the spot of his burial on ‘Belle House Neck’ in Scituate.

On 11 Oct 1774 when William was 42, he married Hannah Phillips (43959) , daughter of George L. Phillips (29062) (22 Aug 1717-26 Feb 1778) & Hannah Phillips (40681) (20 Jun 1728-Mar 1769), in Middletown, CT.2 Born on 31 Jul 1754 in Middletown, CT.229 Hannah died in Scituate, MA, on 12 May 1834; she was 79.48 Buried in South Parish Cemetery, Norwell. Marriage intention published on 27 Aug 1774 at Scituate, MA.48

Hannah was of Middleton when she married William.48

Spouse:                   Hannah Phillips, 2C4R (31 Jul 1754-12 May 1834)

Birth:                      31 Jul 1754

Birth Place:              Middletown, CT

Death:                     12 May 1834, age: 79

Death Place:             Scituate Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     George L. Phillips (22 Oct 1717-26 Feb 1778)

Mother:                   Hannah Phillips, 1C5R (20 Jul 1728-)

Marriage:                 11 Oct 1774

Marr Place:              Scituate Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

(4) 1.1a.1.3 Rev. John Cotton15,15, GGGG Granduncle

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      5 Apr 17124,14,4,14

Birth Place:              HalifaxTownship, Massachusetts

Death:                     4 Nov 1789, age: 7715,16,15

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Nov 178917,17

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “John COTTON, Esq., died Nov. 4, 178 [9] formerly a minister of the Gospel at Halifax  [In his 78th year.]

Father:                     Josiah Cotton, 5G Grandfather (8 Jan 1679-19 Aug 1756)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 5G Grandmother (10 Apr 1687-27 May 1756)

Brief Bio: John Cotton, Esq.

 son of the above, was born April, 1712, graduated at Harvard College, 1730, and was ordained minister at Halifax, county of Plymouth, October, 1736. From an indisposition, which greatly affected his voice, he requested and received his dismiss sion in 1756. He succeeded his father in the office of Register of Deeds, which he held until his decease, which took place Nov. 4th, 1789, in the 78th year of his age. He was considered an able theologian, and his pulpit performances were much esteemed by judicious auditors. He was the author of the valuable Ac count of Plymouth Church, appended to the sermon preached at the ordination of Rev. Chandler Robbins, in 1760. This account was republished in the 4th vol. of the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical So ciety, and has been resorted to by the author of the present work. He published, also, seasonable warnings to the churches of New England, and tracts on Infant Baptism, and several occasional sermons. He was chosen by the town, delegate to the convention for forming a constitution for the Commonwealth, in the year 1780, and was one of the committee for the county to draft the constitution. He left sons and daughters. Josiah, the eldest, was the minister at Wareham, and afterwards a magistrate and clerk of the court for the county of Plymouth. He died April, 1819, aged 71, leaving one son, who is a physician in the state of Ohio, and one daughter, who is the wife of Isaac L. Hedge, Esq. of this town. Two other $ons of John Cotton, are Rosseter, the present Register of Deeds for the county, and Ward, minister of Boylston.8

John Cotton was born April 5, 1712, at Halifax, Mass., a son of Josiah and Hannah (Sturtevant) Cotton.  He graduated from Harvard College in 1730.  He was minister at Halifax for about twenty years, ordained 1735; resigned 1756.  He went to Plymouth in1756 and was the registrar of deeds and city treasurer.  He was a delegate to the convention to form a constitution for Massachusetts in 1780.  Among his printed works are “Seasonable Warnings to the Churches of New England”, “Tracts on Infant Baptism”, and “History of Plymouth Churches”.  His library, chiefly of ancient literature, was considerable.  He married, December 9, 1746, Hannah Sturtevant, born January 8, 1708; died May 24, 1800.  He died November 4, 1789 at Plymouth.

John Cotton

(Harvard, 1730)

John Cotton, minister of Halifax, Massachusetts, and Register of Deeds of Plymouth County, was born on April 5, 1712, the oldest son of Judge Josiah (A.B. 1698) and Hannah (Sturtevant) Cotton of Plymouth. At college he was a member of the Philomusarian Club and a model student although for four years he lived in a college room and ate college food. The cost of his education forced the Judge to sell a portion of his farm and go into debt1 in spite of the fact that John helped out by his earnings as a Scholar of the House. Up until this time Harvard scholarships and “exhibitions” had been awarded on a basis of need and family position rather than scholastic excellence, but now the President took a portion of the income from the Hopkins gift to buy books for one or two “undergraduates distinguishing themselves by very well performing their academical Exercises.”2 John won the first of these deturs, receiving copies of Cotton Mather’s Manuductio ad Ministerium and Ratio Disciplinae. After graduation he obtained, thanks to his father’s earnest efforts, short terms as schoolmaster at Billingsgate, in Eastham, and at Rochester, and Middleborough. On November 26, 1732, when temporarily out of employment as a teacher, he preached for the first time from the pulpit of the First Church of Plymouth. After he had conducted several services there he was invited to preach in the Second, or Manomet, Church, where he supplied the pulpit for several months. He also served as a supply at Wareham.

In June, 1733, Cotton returned to Cambridge to take his M.A., presenting a negative answer to the Quaestio, “An Beati in Cælis, Cupidinum ac Spei sint capaces?” In July he rented a college study, but he was drawn off by curiosity to see a New Haven Commencement. When he returned he was invited to preach to the congregation which was then forming to provide more accessible services for the inhabitants of the outlying parts of the towns of Plympton, Middleborough, and Pembroke. He began preaching to this group in November, 1733. In July, 1734, the area was incorporated as the town of Halifax, and in October, the church was organized. It first called Ephraim Keith (A.B. 1729), but he declined. Then, on April 9, 1735, it called Cotton, and the town concurred three weeks later. His letter of acceptance,3 which is dated July 21, is particularly flowery and verbose, but it raised the practical questions of the building of a parsonage and an annual supply of wood for it, on both of which points agreement was soon reached.

On September 14, 1735, Cotton was dismissed from the First Church of Plymouth to that at Halifax, over which he was ordained on October 1:

The Revd Mr. Eells [A.B. 1699] gave the Charge and Mr. Thacher [A.B. 1706] the Right hand of fellowship, and these two together with the Revd. Messers Lewis [A.B. 1707] and Stacey [A.B. 1719] assisted in laying on of hands. And this was done after the Church had publickly at said time renewed their Call to the said Mr. Cotton, and Mr. Cotton had verbally renewed his answer.4

As good a picture of the young minister as exists appears in a letter which he not long after this wrote to the Reverend John Cotton of the Isle of Wight:

I’ve bin fitted with vehement Desires . . . ever since I left the College to pay a visit to the Land of the forefathers Sepulcures, and the place of your present Residence. But Providence has given an Intire Supersedeat of all Motions of that Nature . . . For I am now as I Suppose Stated for life in a New Town called Hallifax. . . . I’ve bin a Constant preacher for about twelve years past, Having Entered on that work when I  was near 21 . . . But I have not yet fallen into the Matrimonial State, Tho’ I am no ways inclined to the monastic life Neither Do I approve the Celibacy of the Clergy.5

It was not, as a matter of fact, until December 9, 1746, that he married, and then his choice fell upon his second cousin Hannah, daughter of Josiah and Hannah (Church) Sturtevant of Halifax.6

As a minister, Cotton made a good impression on his contemporaries. Chief Justice Benjamin Lynde (A.B. 1686) thought that he “preached and prayed very distinctly and well,”7 and another contemporary described him as “a man of method, of few words, of much reading on historical, religious, and also medicinal subjects.”8 Early in his career his position on most of the issues which distinguished a liberal from a conservative indicated that he belonged in the former camp. When his church became aware of this tendency, it defended its own conservative position by voting to elect deacons, to require public testimonials of conversion, and to sing after a precentor. The minister acquiesced in these votes, but after five years he succeeded in convincing his church that the “regular” system of singing from written notes without a precentor was the original, and therefore the proper, way.

The Halifax church admitted to its communion members of the Church of England, but its pastor complained of the activity of the Anglican church in New England:

The Church of England has bin greatly increased in these latter years amongst us . . . This wonderful increase of these of that Denomination is partially owing to the penurious Spirit of Some of our People, who fly to the Church of England in order to be Exempted from Rates & assessments towards the Support of our Clergy; For the Church does not Exact Tythes, or other Rates from any of their Members: But their Clergy are Supported from England; The money that is given towards the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts being appropriated for that use. A wretched Misapplication this! And beside the Intention of the Donors — which I Suppose was to Convert the Heathen Nations; and not to promote and uphold Divisions & Contentions amongst professed Christians. . . . Others There are whom when they have bin faithfully disciplined in the Churches for moral Scandal, Such as drunkeness and the like, Do immediately fly to the Church [of England] as a City of Refuge, and there they meet with a Ready Reception, and Soon being Staunch Members, and Highflyers in the worst Sense. By which Means our Congregations are often purged of Some of the Most Degenerate Members, and the Church is made to Consist Chiefly of Some of the worst of men, who would be a disgrace to any Profession whatsoever.9

The confusion which then existed in the Congregational churches he laid largely to the jealous Anglican group which had prevented the calling of a Congregational synod in Massachusetts. He was not particularly worried by heresy:

The Divines among us are Generally rigid Calvinists, Tho’ Arminianism begins Somewhat to prevail, Especially at the College. As for Arrianism or Deism There are but a few that have as Yet imbibed those Tenets in the land.10

In spite of this theological weakness at Harvard he thought that the college was flourishing gloriously and like in fifty or a hundred years to afford as good an education as Oxford or Cambridge.

When, however, Harvard refused to cooperate in the Great Awakening, Cotton’s faith in the college was shaken. For his own part he was a moderate New-Light, and he approved without reservation the Testimony and Advice of the pastors in favor of the revival. In a testimonial account which he published in the New-Light periodical he described how he had been won over by the preaching of Eleazar Wheelock (Yale 1733), and how the happily miserable children of his parish held their own miniature revivals:

All Frolicking and Carousing, and merry Meetings were laid aside: Foolish Talking and Jesting seem’d terrible to the young People; they could not endure it; they desir’d to hear nothing but what was serious and solemn; they took more Delight in going to a Meeting than ever they did to a Frolick. . . . One young Girl particularly of nine Years of Age when at Play with her Consorts out of Doors, tho’ no Body had spoken to her of religious Things that Day; she fell down in great Distress, and said, “it seem’d as if Hell lay before her, that she was ready to fall into it.”11

He opposed lay preaching and outcries in meeting, but signed the New-Light Testimony of September 25, 1745.

In the neighboring town of Middleborough the Old-Lights prevented the settlement of Sylvanus Conant (A.B. 1740) by the expedient of invoking the long-ignored property qualification for voting. Cotton joined in the battle to settle the young New-Light and published a Seasonable Warning to air the case in public. So far as his biography is concerned, this pamphlet is of less interest than the bitter reply which it invoked from an Old-Light layman:

When . . . I considered your Performance, how Scandal, Falshood, Ill-Nature and a Shew of Learning were so thick sprinkled over the whole of it, as even to darken the most trifling Matters of Fact. . . . Fye! for Shame on your Reverence! Do you take up with general Talk? Do you believe every idle Story that a zealous Brother or Sister tells you? — I have been told myself that you was an honest Man and a Man of Sense, but I don’t believe a Word of it, nor shall any general Talk make me believe so, ’till I see Signs of Repentance for publishing your Seasonable Warning. . . .Well spoke, Mr. Committee-Man! But how dare you to say so before his High Mightiness and Reverence, Mr. John Cotton of Hallifax? Did you know he had more Power than the General Court, and could order you into his Presence in the thousandth part of a Minute, altho’ you were ten Miles off? I did not think a New-Light himself would have had half the impudence to have said any thing like it, before his Hogan Moganship.12

This castigation did not deter Cotton from joining in the attack on Lemuel Briant (A.B. 1739) for his Arminianism. By his intimation that Arminians were lecherous he laid himself open to attack through the memory of his grandfather, the Reverend John Cotton (A.B. 1657), whose dismissal from the church at Plymouth resulted from the great scandal of the generation. Briant did not neglect this weapon:

Mr. Cotton, Suffer me to say further, that as I don’t know my Intimates have been scandalous in any Instance, so am I very sure that their Grand-Fathers before them have never sinned in such a Sense, and to such a Degree, as to be forced to leave their Country for Iniquities sake, and to wander about in Goat-Skins least even the Dumb should bring a Charge of Leachery against them.13

It is interesting that Cotton both in print and private correspondence always denied that there was any evidence to support the moral charges made against his grandfather.

Matters were hardly more peaceful at Halifax, thanks to “the miscarriages & quarrels” brought on by his wife’s relatives.14 Early in 1755, finding that he was losing his voice, he “took a Small voyage to Sea,” evidently to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where a Mr. John Cotton preached for a while at the Mather Church.15 Back at home he decided that his voice would never recover so as to permit him to carry a regular burden of preaching, so with sorrow, for the ministry “was ever his greatest delight,” he asked to be dismissed. An ecclesiastical council met on December 24 and approved his dismission with the understanding that it was no bar to his call elsewhere if he should recover his voice.

Cotton immediately removed to Plymouth where the opportune death of his father vacated the office of Register of Deeds to which he succeeded and which he held until his own death. He also quickly acquired the offices of town treasurer and assessor and of treasurer of Plymouth County. In 1762 he was appointed justice of the peace. With these offices he naturally succeeded his father as the most distinguished man in Plymouth, and as such was frequently elected moderator of town and church meetings. These offices carried more honors and responsibilities than profits, and as a result his financial position was not of the best.16

Justice Cotton was naturally the leading layman of the First Church and he enjoyed being invited to preach whenever the pulpit was vacant. In 1760 he welcomed Chandler Robbins (A.M. 1760), son of his old friend Philemon (A.B. 1729), and took the opportunity to write a history of the church in which he damned Arminians and lay preachers and kowtowed to the Fathers: “And seeing we are descended from such blessed Ancestors, of pious Memory, what Reason have we to be humbled, that we fall so short of their heavenly Pattern.”17 Young Parson Robbins was a man of strong, if mistaken, views, and could not stand to have his church dominated by an ancient lay theologian. In 1770 he moved to have the church drop the Half-Way Covenant, and Cotton rushed to its defense, urging that it had been the practice of the church for a century past. The former pastor insisted on reading to the church a series of long essays on the subject of church membership, and Robbins, barred from debate by his position as moderator, could only sit and hiss loudly as the older man read. Taken to task for this, he said that Cotton lied; that he did not hiss but pish. In a personal letter to Cotton he was more explicitly critical:

What you read in your last Piece was a most injurious, unchristian, ungentleman-like, gross misrepresentation of the sentiments of your brethren who are on the other side of the question in debate. . . . To what purpose then, were these passionate exclamations and pathetic addresses to the people. . . . You, Sir, have more sense, I am persuaded, than to imagine men of tolerable penetration can look upon such popular harangues and appeals to men’s passions, as sound reasoning.18

When he added the suggestion that Cotton was an Arminian, he received the reply that he might have expected:

Mr. Robbins, I must tell you, I scorn the charge; I know what is Arminianism as well as you do, and am as free from it as yourself. And you might with as much propriety call me an Arian, a Muggletonian, yea, a Deist as an Arminian.19

At the moment the Half-Way Covenant was a matter of serious public concern, so these essays, Robbins’ replies, and the correspondence were avidly read when put into print; but the church at Plymouth became heartily sick of the matter and on June 30, 1772, voted twice not to hear the fourth essay. Later relenting out of respect for Cotton’s gray hairs, it agreed to hear one more, but he complained of the conduct of one of Robbins’ supporters while the reading was going on:

He could not hear me long with patience; for he kept altering his posture, rising and sitting, shifting seats, walking in the alley, running out of doors, and then returning; and sometimes speaking and objecting, trying to stop me, &c. For which management I gave a stamp at him, and kept on reading.20

After this, the First Church voted to have no more of Mr. Cotton’s essays.

The two protagonists continued to carry on the debate in pamphlets which contributed nothing toward the solution of the problems of church polity involved, but do illuminate New England life in one of its undignified moments. Thus Cotton in replying to a Robbins pamphlet said:

It may perhaps gain the applause of the vulgar (for whom it seems especially calculated) and raise their indignation against me; but men of learning and penetration will easily see, that the merits of the cause are not touched. . . .

When he [Robbins] knew, that 3 quarters of the parish or more would gladly hear me preach, and (being about to take a journey to Connecticut), was earnestly urged by some of the principal men to invite me to supply the pulpit, and told, that it should not cost him a farthing; he rather than do it, chose to ride above 40 miles to get a young preacher, who when he came no body liked, and I was forced at last to preach part of the time, at the invitation of the deacons and the precinct committee.21

Thus the debate flickered out in personalities, well characterized in Robbins’ last reply:

How any person could hold of such a temper, and keep it up to this heighth, for fifteen months together . . . while writing a book of about 150 pages, is to me perfectly astonishing and unaccountable. It has been observed, that there is not a page, but what contains some ungenerous reflection, or malevolent slander.22

Perhaps, however, old Mr. Cotton can be said to have done New England a service by meeting head-on a very able young religious reactionary.

Cotton was slightly liberal in matters of ecclesiastical policy, but he was no social democrat. When he heard that Yale, where his son Josiah was a Sophomore, was abandoning the system of academic seniority based on the social status of the parents, he protested bitterly to President Daggett:

I have lately been perusing President Clap’s account of your College, and was Surprised to find the last Classes of under-Graduates Set down in alphabetical order; and upon Enquiry understand Something of the Reason of it; But this now perhaps ceases upon Mr. Clap’s Demise. It Seems none of these Classes have as yet taken their Degrees; So that tis not yet too late to follow the former Regulation. I’m perswaded it will give great Dissatisfaction if the new Method takes place; It may perhaps save the Governours of the College Some Trouble, and prevent some Reflections from Some few particular Gentlemen, who think their Sons have not their due Place; But the other way will disgust Gentlemen in general, whose Sons must perhaps Stand the lowest, and have one brot up by Charity or of the meanest Parantage often at their Head. And I’m fully satisfied the new Constitution cannot Stand long; as Soon as Some of your Governors or Assistants or Some Gentlemen of great influence in your Government shall have Sons to send to the College, they will either oblige you to alter your Conduct, or Send their Sons elsewhere, where they can have Some Mark of Respect placed upon them. And if you should at last return to your old Custom, how indecorous will it be to have a few alphabetical Classes stand in the middle of your Catalogue, and all the rest placed according to their Station in Life. For my Part I’m sensible that the Difference with Respect to my Sons Place in the Class will be but little, which Method soever is followed; yet this I must Say, That (tho’ in several Respects I prefer New Haven before Cambridge) if I had known of this New Scheme before hand and my Son had been 3 or 4 years younger, I should rather (upon this very account) have Stayed a Year Longer for his Admission than have sent him to Newhaven. And I believe it will be a general Discouragement to Gentlemen at a Distance and particularly in our Province to Send their Sons amongst you (whatever Esteem they May have of your Society upon other accounts) if they must in this Sort be degraded and no Distinction be made between them & the lowest Sort. Upon the Whole, I would query, whether the new method does not Savor too much of the Doctrine of Levelism, which has not much Credit in the present Age. . . .

If the Classes should be placed, I trust you are not unacquainted with my present (as with former) Situation in Life. I would only Say, that my Father not only enjoyed my present offices, But was chief Judge or Justice of our County Courts for many Years.

I would add to what has been said above, That by not placing the Classes, you lose one of the most considerable & effectual Curbs upon the Scholars to prevent Misdemeanors, namely, the Terrors of Degradation; which near or quite equals that of Expulsion: and the latter you must perhaps have often Recourse to in case of high-handed offences, for Want of some adequate Punishment. A Fine will be esteemed as nothing by vitious young Men; Their Parents Purses must bear that.23

His was a voice crying in a growing wilderness of democracy, for the very next year Harvard followed Yale in abandoning the system of social seniority.

In the political affairs of the Revolutionary period there was never any doubt that Justice Cotton was a Whig and a rebel. On November 24, 1772, he signed the Plymouth petition protesting the placing of his classmate Oliver and the other Superior Court judges on the royal pay roll,24 and later he served on the town committee to draft the resolutions.25 In 1776 he was elected to the Plymouth Committee of Correspondence but declined to serve, probably because of his age, for he also refused to serve as selectman. He did, however, serve on a town committee to set “the prices of Inholders, Labour of all kinds, and the manufactures of this Town & all the necessarys & conveniences of life.”26 Later in the war he served on the town draft board. In 1776 he was a member of a town committee to consider the nature of the proposed State constitution, and four years later he was a member of the constitutional convention. In the first election under the new constitution he received one vote for the office of State senator.

Justice Cotton clung to his offices because they brought him a little money in an evil period of inflation. Twice he worked out his small share of special taxes by keeping the account of their collection. After the War he began to shed his public duties, and in October, 1782, he asked that his son Josiah be appointed a justice of the peace to help him carry the burden of that now too onerous office. He died at Plymouth on November 4, 1789, and his widow on May 25, 1800. They had eleven children, of whom Josiah was graduated at Yale in 1771 and Ward at Harvard in 1793.27 He left a large library, chiefly of classical authors. He continued the voluminous diary, or memoir, kept by his father, but the manuscript of it, which was for some years deposited in Pilgrim Hall in Plymouth, has not been found since the death of its owner. The Congregational Library has some of his sermons in manuscript.

Works

An Appendix, Containing an Account of the Church of Christ in Plymouth, affixed to Philemon Robbins, A Sermon Preached at the Ordination of . . . Chandler Robbins, Boston, 1760. AAS, BA, BPL, CL, H, JCB, MHS, NYP, Y.

— Reprinted in I Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. IV, 107-41.

An Appendix, pp. 29-64, in John Porter, A Vindication, Boston, 1751. AAS, BA, BPL, JCB, LC, MHS, NYH, Y.

The General Practice of the Churches of New-England, Relating to Baptism, Vindicated. . . . Delivered at Several Church-Meetings in Plymouth. With Some Letters that Passed on the Subject. . . . Boston, [1772]. (6), 73 pages. AAS, BA, BPL, CHS, CL, H, HEH, JCB, MHS, NYP, WLC, Y.

The General Practice of the Churches of New-England, Relating to Baptism, Further Vindicated. . . . An Answer to the Rev. Chandler Robbins’s Reply. . . . Together with some Further Remarks on Mr. Robbins’s Injurious Treatment of the Author. . . . Boston, 1773. 154, (1) pages. AAS, BA, BPL, CL, H, LC, MHS, NYH, NYP, Y.

God’s Call to His People. . . . Two Sermons Preached at Plymouth, June 30. 1757. Being a Day of General Humiliation, Occasioned by Drought and the War. . . . Boston, 1757. 43 pages. AAS, BA, CL, JCB, MHS, NYH.

The Right Hand of Fellowship, pp. 53-5 in Joseph Fish, Love to Christ, Newport, 1747, was probably the work of Josiah Cotton (A.B. 1722). AAS, BA, BPL, H, JCB, LC, MHS, NYH, WLC.

Seasonable Warning to These Churches. A Narrative of the Transactions at Middleborough . . . in Settling a Minister [Sylvanus Conant]. . . . Boston, 1746. 38 pages. AAS, BA, BPL, CHS, CL, H, JCB, MHS, NYH, Y.

The Separation of the Tares and Wheat. . . . Preached . . . at Attleborough . . . January 9, 1746,7. . . . Boston, [1747]. (4), 44 pages. AAS, CHS, LC.

1. Josiah Cotton, Memoirs (Mass. Hist. Soc.), pp. 206-7.

2. Hopkins Trustees’ Minutes (Harvard University Archives), back pages. The M. H. S. has Cotton’s Ms. copy of Monis’ Hebrew grammar.

3. Mayflower Descendant, XXVI, 179.

4. Ibid., p. 180; Boston News-Letter, Nov. 27, 1735.

5. Draft of a letter in H. U. A., HUG 300.

6. According to the genealogies she was born in 1708, but this cannot be reconciled with the fact that she bore a son in 1770. Her gravestone says that she was 73 when she died in 1800.

7. The Diaries of Benjamin Lynde, Sr., and Benjamin Lynde, Jr., Boston, 1880, pp. 70-1.

8. 2 Coll. M. H. S. IV, 283.

9. Letter to John Cotton of the Isle of Wight.

10. Ibid.

11. Christian History, I (1744), 259-70.

12. Ebenezer Morton, More Last Words to These Churches, Boston, 1746, pp. 6, 20, 27.

13. Lemuel Briant, Some More Friendly Remarks, Boston, 1751, p. 26.

14. Josiah Cotton, p. 403.

15. Nova Scotia Hist. Soc. Coll. XVI, 163.

16. John Adams, Works, Boston, 1850-58, II, 206.

17. Appendix, p. 35, in Philemon Robbins, Sermon Preached at the Ordination of . . . Chandler Robbins, Boston, 1760.

18. Quoted in John Cotton, The General Practice of the Churches of New-England, Relating to Baptism, Vindicated, Boston, [1772] p. 34.

19. Ibid., p. 41.

20. Cotton, The General Practice of the Churches of New-England, Relating to Baptism, Further Vindicated, Boston, 1773, p. 145.

21. Ibid., pp. 6, 134-5.

22. Chandler Robbins, Some Brief Remarks on a Piece . . . The General Practice of the Churches . . . Further Vindicated, Boston, 1774.) p. 19.

23. Cotton to Daggett (Yale University Library), June 9, 1768.

24. Records of the Town of Plymouth, III (Plymouth, 1903), pp. 261-2.

25. Ibid., pp. 265-6; Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter, Dec. 24, 1772, p. 4.

26. Cotton’s report with the schedule of prices is printed in Plymouth Records, III, 378-80.

27. For the children see La Verne C. Cooley, A Short Biography of the Rev. John Cotton of Boston and a Cotton Genealogy, Batavia, n. d., p. 37.

Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, 8:681-691.

Misc. Notes: John Cotton was born April 5, 1712, at Halifax, Mass., a son of Josiah and Hannah (Sturtevant) Cotton.  He graduated from Harvard College in 1730.  He was minister at Halifax for about twenty years, ordained 1735; resigned 1756.  He went to Plymouth in1756 and was the registrar of deeds and city treasurer.  He was a delegate to the convention to form a constitution for Massachusetts in 1780.  Among his printed works are “Seasonable Warnings to the Churches of New England”, “Tracts on Infant Baptism”, and “History of Plymouth Churches”.  His library, chiefly of ancient literature, was considerable.  He married, December 9, 1746, Hannah Sturtevant, born January 8, 1708; died May 24, 1800.  He died November 4, 1789 at Plymouth.

John Cotton was born April 5, 1712, at Halifax, Mass., a son of Josiah and Hannah (Sturtevant) Cotton.  He graduated from Harvard College in 1730.  He was minister at Halifax for about twenty years, ordained 1735; resigned 1756.  He went to Plymouth in1756 and was the registrar of deeds and city treasurer.  He was a delegate to the convention to form a constitution for Massachusetts in 1780.  Among his printed works are “Seasonable Warnings to the Churches of New England”, “Tracts on Infant Baptism”, and “History of Plymouth Churches”.  His library, chiefly of ancient literature, was considerable.  He married, December 9, 1746, Hannah Sturtevant, born January 8, 1708; died May 24, 1800.  He died November 4, 1789 at Plymouth.

Spouse:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 2C6R (7 Dec 1727-25 May 1800)

Birth:                      7 Dec 172718

Birth Place:              Plymouth, Massachusetts

Death:                     25 May 1800, age: 7219,19

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     May 180019,19

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Mrs. Hannah COTTON, died May 25, 1800, in her 73rd year, Relict of John COTTON, Esq.”

Father:                     Capt. Josiah Sturtevant, 1C7R (abt 1690-7 Mar 1774)

Mother:                   Hannah Church, 3C6R (22 Oct 1699-17 Feb 1774)

Marriage:                 9 Dec 174615

Marr Place:              HalifaxTownship, Massachusetts

5 Children…

                              Josiah (14 Aug 1747-19 Apr 1819)

                              Dr. Rossiter (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

                              Joanna (1760-2 Nov 1822)

                              Lucy (12 Feb 1768-15 Oct 1818)

                              Sarah “Sally” (1 Dec 1763-22 Nov 1828)

(5) 1.1a.1.3.1a Josiah Cotton*, 1C5R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      14 Aug 174715,15

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     19 Apr 1819, age: 7120,20

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Apr 181921,21

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Josiah COTTON Esq., died April 19, 1819, aged 71 years.  Formerly minister at Wareham.”

Father:                     Rev. John Cotton, GGGG Granduncle (5 Apr 1712-4 Nov 1789)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 2C6R (7 Dec 1727-25 May 1800)

Josiah Cotton

(Yale, 1771)

Josiah Cotton, the eldest child of the Rev. John Cotton (Harvard 1730), of Halifax, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, and grandson of the Hon. Josiah and Hannah (Sturtevant) Cotton, of Plymouth, was born in 1747.

The Rev. John Cotton (who was a great grandson of the Rev. John Cotton of Boston) married his second cousin, Hannah, eldest daughter of Josiah and Hannah (Church) Sturtevant, of Halifax; on the failure of his voice, in 1756, he removed to Plymouth and entered on a long career as Register of Deeds.

The son studied theology, and early in the summer of 1775 began preaching in Wareham, in his native county, as a candidate for settlement.  Having been duly called by the church, the town concurred on August 21, offering a salary of £65, and his ordination took place on November 1.

Difficulties soon arose about the payment of his dues, and the poverty and backwardness of the parish discouraged the young minister.  A vote in town-meeting, in March, 1779, authorized his dismission, and he removed immediately after to Plymouth, where the rest of his days were spent, in civil life.

He became a magistrate and served as clerk of the County Court, retiring from office in 1811.

He died in Plymouth on April 19, 1819, aged 71 years.

He first married Lydia Parker, of Falmouth, Massachusetts, by whom he had one son and one daughter.  She died on November 1, 1787, in her 35th year, and he next married Rachel, eldest child of the Rev. David Barnes (Harvard 1752) and Rachel (Leonard) Barnes, of Scituate, Massachusetts, who bore him two sons and one daughter, and died on January 17, 1808, aged 50½ years.

He married again, in 1808, Priscilla, eldest daughter of Elkanah and Patience (Marston) Watson, of Plymouth, who died on October 4, 1859, aged 99 years.

The children of his first marriage died before him, as did also one of the sons by the second marriage.  His surviving son was a graduate of Harvard College (A.B. 1810, M.D. 1814).

The text inscribed upon his gravestone indicates his character: “He deliver’d the poor that cried and those that had none to help them, and caused the Widow’s heart to sing for joy.”

Authorities.

Bliss, Colonial Times on Buzzard’s Bay, 2d ed., 149-53, 183.  Davis, Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth, pt. 1, 230; pt. 2, 72-73, 254-55, 277.  Deane, Hist. of Scituate, 210.  Kingman, Epitaphs from Burial Hill, Plymouth, 60, 111, 133, 241.  Mass. Historical Society’s Proceedings, xiii, 211-12.  N. E. Hist. and Geneal. Register, i, 166.  Thacher, Hist. of Plymouth, 178.

Dexter, Yale Graduates, 3:409-411.

Spouse:                   Lydia Parker (1752-1 Nov 1787)

Birth:                      175222,22

Birth Place:              Falmouth, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Memo:                    birth year based on headstone inscription

Death:                     1 Nov 1787, age: 35

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Nov 178720,20

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Mrs. Lydia COTTON, died Nov. 1, 1787, in her 35th year.”

Marriage:                 1 Mar 177522

Marr Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

1 Child…

                              Thomas Smith (Jun 1787-11 Oct 1787)

Other spouses:          Rachel Barnes, Pricilla Watson

(6) 1.1a.1.3.1a.1 Thomas Smith Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      Jun 1787

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     11 Oct 1787, age: <123,20,23,20

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Oct 1787

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone inscription reads:  “Thomas Smith COTTON died Oct. 11,  [1787, aged 4 months & 18 days.]

Father:                     Josiah Cotton, 1C5R (14 Aug 1747-19 Apr 1819)

Mother:                   Lydia Parker (1752-1 Nov 1787)

(5) 1.1a.1.3.1b Josiah Cotton* (See above)

_____________________________________________________________

Spouse:                   Rachel Barnes (1758-17 Jan 1808)

Birth:                      175822,22

Birth Place:              Scituate, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    birth year based on headstone inscription

Death:                     17 Jan 1808, age: 5020,20

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Jan 1808

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Rachel COTTON, died Jan 17, 1808, aged 50 years, wife of Josiah Cotton, Esq.”

Marriage:                 bef 1790

2 Children…

                              David Barnes (Oct 1794-27 Apr 1795)

                              John (abt 1790-2 Apr 1847)

Other spouses:          Lydia Parker, Pricilla Watson

(6) 1.1a.1.3.1b.1 David Barnes Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      Oct 179417,17

Birth Place:              Wareham, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Memo:                    birth year based on headstone inscription

Death:                     27 Apr 1795, age: <1

Death Place:             Wareham, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Apr 179517,17

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “David Barnes COTTON, died {April 27, 1795, aged seven months, son of Josiah and Rachel Cotton.]”

Father:                     Josiah Cotton, 1C5R (14 Aug 1747-19 Apr 1819)

Mother:                   Rachel Barnes (1758-17 Jan 1808)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.1b.2 John Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      abt 1790

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township,  Massachusetts

Death:                     2 Apr 1847, age: 57

Death Place:             Marietta, Ohio

Father:                     Josiah Cotton, 1C5R (14 Aug 1747-19 Apr 1819)

Mother:                   Rachel Barnes (1758-17 Jan 1808)

Spouse:                   Susan Buckminster (abt 1792-abt 1861)

Birth:                      abt 1792

Death:                     abt 1861, age: 69

1 Child…

                              George Dexter (abt 1822-abt 1903)

(7) 1.1a.1.3.1b.2.1 George Dexter Cotton, 3C3R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      abt 1822

Death:                     abt 1903, age: 81

Father:                     John Cotton, 2C4R (abt 1790-2 Apr 1847)

Mother:                   Susan Buckminster (abt 1792-abt 1861)

Spouse:                   Anna Steele (abt 1828-abt 1911)

Birth:                      abt 1828

Death:                     abt 1911, age: 83

1 Child…

                              George Dexter (11 Feb 1861-11 Aug 1927)

(8) 1.1a.1.3.1b.2.1.1 George Dexter Cotton, 4C2R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      11 Feb 1861

Birth Place:              Marietta, Ohio

Death:                     11 Aug 1927, age: 66

Death Place:             Atkinson, Holt, Nebraska

Father:                     George Dexter Cotton, 3C3R (abt 1822-abt 1903)

Mother:                   Anna Steele (abt 1828-abt 1911)

Spouse:                   Eva Blondin (abt 1865-abt 1936)

Birth:                      abt 1865

Death:                     abt 1936, age: 71

1 Child…

                              Eva Marie (abt 1893-abt 1987)

(5) 1.1a.1.3.1c Josiah Cotton* (See above)

_____________________________________________________________

Spouse:                   Pricilla Watson (30 Sep 1760-4 Oct 1859)

Birth:                      30 Sep 176017,17

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     4 Oct 1859, age: 99

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Oct 185917,17

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Priscilla COTTON, widow of Josiah Cotton, born Sept. 30, 1760 and died Oct. 4, 1859”

Marriage:                 1808

Other spouses:          Lydia Parker, Rachel Barnes

(5) 1.1a.1.3.2 Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      23 Mar 1758

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     Aug 1837, age: 79

Father:                     Rev. John Cotton, GGGG Granduncle (5 Apr 1712-4 Nov 1789)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 2C6R (7 Dec 1727-25 May 1800)

Spouse:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

Birth:                      13 Apr 1765

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Thomas Jackson, 2C6R (15 Feb 1729-19 Sep 1794)

Mother:                   Sarah Taylor, 1C5R (20 Sep 1733-27 Oct 1811)

Marriage:                 31 Oct 178323

Marr Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

8 Children…

                              Captain Thomas Jackson (17 Jan 1785-9 Jun 1819)

                              Dr. Charles (7 Oct 1788-3 Feb 1870)

                              Dr. Rossiter Mather M.D. (11 Jul 1789-4 Oct 1870)

                              Rosseter (1794-20 Jan 1796)

                              William Cushing (17 Apr 1804-23 Aug 1805)

                              Captain John Winslow (29 Mar 1800-10 Sep 1878)

                              Roland Edwin (4 Jan 1802-)

                              Mary (Jun 1790-6 Aug 1791)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.1 Captain Thomas Jackson Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      17 Jan 178524,24

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     9 Jun 1819, age: 3424,24

Death Place:             Havana, Cuba

Burial Place:             Memorial on Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts24,24

Memo:                    Memorial stone shared with two brothers reads:  “Capt. Tomas COTTON, born Jan. 17, 1785 and died June 9, 1819 in Havana.  Rossiter M. COTTON, born July 11, 1798 and died Oct. 4, 1870 in Jackson County, Louisiana. William C. COTTON, born April 17, 1804 and died Aug. 23 1805. Children of Rossiter and Priscilla COTTON.”

Father:                     Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

Mother:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

Spouse:                   Phoebe Stevens

Dr. Charles Cotton

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.2 Dr. Charles Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      7 Oct 1788

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township,  Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     3 Feb 1870, age: 81

Death Place:             New Port, Rhode Isand

Father:                     Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

Mother:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

Dr. Charles Cotton, son of Rossiter and Priscilla (Jackson) Cotton, was born in Plymouth, Mass., October 7, 17S8. He was given excellent educational advantages, and in 1806 was graduated from Harvard College with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and six years later he received the degree of Master of Arts. He also graduated from Brown University in 1813. Early in 1811 he was appointed surgeon’s mate on the frigate “Constitution,” and on April 2, 1812, received his commission in the United States navy. In October, 1812, he was assigned to the “Hornet,” under Captain Lawrence, and in .-April, 1813, was commissioned surgeon. Dr. Cotton was on board the “Constitution” at the time she escorted the Hon.  John Jay to France, and on his return was stationed at the Charlestown (Mass.) Navy Yard. In 1817 he was placed in charge of the Naval Hospital at Newport, R. I. He took part in some of the most stirring engagements of the War of 1S12, among them the battle between the “Hornet” and the “Peacock,” after which he was severely censured by Commodore Bainbridge for unnecessarily exposing himself to danger. In 1820 he was awarded a silver medal for gallant service by Act of Congress, which order, however, has never been executed. In 1823 Dr. Cotton resigned his commission in the navy, and from that time until his death devoted his time entirely to the practice of medicine in Newport.

Dr. Cotton sprang almost immediately into prominence in the medical profession in Newport, and throughout the fifty years of his active practice maintained a leading position in medical circles in the city. A skilled surgeon and physician, his services were in constant demand, and he attended many notable Newport families during the entire period of his practice. His presence in the sick room inspired confidence, and brought the element of cheer and hope so necessary to a successful handling of difficult cases. He was not only the physician, but the beloved friend and advisor of his patients. Dr. Cotton was a respected and revered figure in the life of Newport, and universally admired. Much of his very extensive practice had been among the poor of Newport, whom he attended with all the care and devotion which he gave those who paid liberally for his services. Dr. Cotton was well known in the organizations of the medical profession in Rhode Island, and was a member of the Medical Consociation of Brown University. He became a member of the Rhode Island Medical Society on September 29, 1817. He was also a member of the Rhode Island Historical Society and of the Pilgrim Society, and delivered an address before the latter body on the occasion of the removal of a portion of Plymouth Rock to the society’s premises, which, however, later was restored to its original position.

Dr. Cotton married, at Newport, R. I., Mary Northam, daughter of Captain Stephen T. and Mary (Langley) Northam, who died March 12, 1876. They were the parents of fourteen children, among them, the late William H. Cotton, mentioned below. Dr. Charles Cotton died at his home in Newport, R. I., February 3, 1870.

(VII) William H. Cotton, son of Dr. Charles and Mary (Northam) Cotton, was born in Plymouth, Mass., February 6, 1837. He studied medicine under the guidance of his father, after completing his education in the schools of Newport, and during the lifetime of Dr. Cotton, Sr., he assisted the older man in the extensive drug business which he had established. Finding that his ability and inclinations fitted him more for this branch of medicine, he abandoned the idea of practice, and thenceforward confined himself, with rare exceptions, to the management of the drug business. He was nevertheless skilled in practical medicine and was on numerous occasions called to prescribe. He was known widely in Newport as “Dr.” Cotton, and became a prominent figure in that city and throughout Rhode Island in the drug business. Dr. Cotton was for many years a member of the State Board of Pharmacy, and served as president of the Rhode Island Pharmaceutical Society for several terms.

William H. Cotton was well known in social and fraternal circles. In 1876 he became a member of St. Paul’s Lodge, No. 14, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and in 1879 was made master of the lodge. He was a member of the Newport Chapter, Royal .Arch Masons, and of Washington Commandery, Knights Templar, serving for two years as eminent commander of the latter body. He was prominent in Masonic affairs in Rhode Island until the time of his death.

On October 23, 1871, Dr. Cotton married Elizabeth Hazard, daughter of the late George Borden and Martha (Clarke) Hazard. Mrs. Cotton is a member of the noted Hazard family of Rhode Island, a descendant in the seventh generation of Thomas Hazard, founder of the family in America, who was of Boston as early as 1635, and subsequently became one of the foremost of the early planters of Rhode Island, a figure of prominence in the affairs of the early colony. The Cotton family has lived for over one hundred years in the historic old house in Cotton’s Court, Newport, one of the oldest and most famous of Newport’s homes. This house was the residence of the first mayor of Newport. It is here that Mrs. Cotton makes her home. She has preserved carefully and in their original setting numerous articles of great historic interest and value with which the old mansion abounds. Mrs. Cotton is well known in social circles in Newport. Dr. and Mrs. Cotton were the parents of two children: i. Mary E. Cotton, who resides with her mother in Newport. 2. William H. Cotton, Jr., a prominent portrait artist of New York City; Mr. Cotton studied under masters in New York, later at the Cowles Art School, in Boston, and completed his studies in the studios of Paris and Rome. He now maintains a studio in New York. In 1907 he received from the National Academy of New York City the first “Hallgarten prize” for his painting, called “The Bathing of the Princess.” He is now an associate member of the National Academy of New York.

William H. Cotton died at his home in Newport, R. I., July 25, 1900.

Spouse:                   Mary Northham

Father:                     Captain Stephen T. Northham

Mother:                   Mary Langley (-12 Mar 1876)

Marriage:                 1 Jan 1836

Marr Place:              New Port, Rhode Isand

1 Child…

                              William H. (7 Feb 1837-25 Jul 1900)

(7) 1.1a.1.3.2.2.1 William H. Cotton, 3C3R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      7 Feb 1837

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township,  Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     25 Jul 1900, age: 63

Death Place:             New Port, Rhode Isand

Father:                     Dr. Charles Cotton, 2C4R (7 Oct 1788-3 Feb 1870)

Mother:                   Mary Northham

William H. Cotton, son of Dr. Charles and Mary (Northam) Cotton, was born in Plymouth, Mass., February 6, 1837. He studied medicine under the guidance of his father, after completing his education in the schools of Newport, and during the lifetime of Dr. Cotton, Sr., he assisted the older man in the extensive drug business which he had established. Finding that his ability and inclinations fitted him more for this branch of medicine, he abandoned the idea of practice, and thenceforward confined himself, with rare exceptions, to the management of the drug business. He was nevertheless skilled in practical medicine and was on numerous occasions called to prescribe. He was known widely in Newport as “Dr.” Cotton, and became a prominent figure in that city and throughout Rhode Island in the drug business. Dr. Cotton was for many years a member of the State Board of Pharmacy, and served as president of the Rhode Island Pharmaceutical Society for several terms.

William H. Cotton was well known in social and fraternal circles. In 1876 he became a member of St. Paul’s Lodge, No. 14, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and in 1879 was made master of the lodge. He was a member of the Newport Chapter, Royal .Arch Masons, and of Washington Commandery, Knights Templar, serving for two years as eminent commander of the latter body. He was prominent in Masonic affairs in Rhode Island until the time of his death.

On October 23, 1871, Dr. Cotton married Elizabeth Hazard, daughter of the late George Borden and Martha (Clarke) Hazard. Mrs. Cotton is a member of the noted Hazard family of Rhode Island, a descendant in the seventh generation of Thomas Hazard, founder of the family in America, who was of Boston as early as 1635, and subsequently became one of the foremost of the early planters of Rhode Island, a figure of prominence in the affairs of the early colony. The Cotton family has lived for over one hundred years in the historic old house in Cotton’s Court, Newport, one of the oldest and most famous of Newport’s homes. This house was the residence of the first mayor of Newport. It is here that Mrs. Cotton makes her home. She has preserved carefully and in their original setting numerous articles of great historic interest and value with which the old mansion abounds. Mrs. Cotton is well known in social circles in Newport. Dr. and Mrs. Cotton were the parents of two children: i. Mary E. Cotton, who resides with her mother in Newport. 2. William H. Cotton, Jr., a prominent portrait artist of New York City; Mr. Cotton studied under masters in New York, later at the Cowles Art School, in Boston, and completed his studies in the studios of Paris and Rome. He now maintains a studio in New York. In 1907 he received from the National Academy of New York City the first “Hallgarten prize” for his painting, called “The Bathing of the Princess.” He is now an associate member of the National Academy of New York.

William H. Cotton died at his home in Newport, R. I., July 25, 1900.

6/1837

Spouse:                   Elizabeth Hazard

Marriage:                 23 Oct 1871

Marr Place:              New Port, Rhode Isand

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.3 Dr. Rossiter Mather Cotton M.D.23,23, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      11 Jul 178924,24

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     4 Oct 1870, age: 81

Death Place:             Jackson County, Louisianna

Burial Place:             Memorial on Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Memorial stone shared with two brothers reads:  “Capt. Tomas COTTON, born Jan. 17, 1785 and died June 9, 1819 in Havana.  Rossiter M. COTTON, born July 11, 1798 and died Oct. 4, 1870 in Jackson County, Louisiana. William C. COTTON, born April 17, 1804 and died Aug. 23 1805. Children of Rossiter and Priscilla COTTON.”

Father:                     Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

Mother:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.4 Rosseter Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      179424,24

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Memo:                    birth year based on headstone inscription

Death:                     20 Jan 1796, age: 224,24

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Jan 1796

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Rosseter, son of Rosseter COTTON, [Esq.] and Priscilla, his wife, died Jan. 30, 1796, aged 2 years.”

Father:                     Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

Mother:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.5 William Cushing Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      17 Apr 180423,23

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     23 Aug 1805, age: 123,23

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Aug 1805

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Memorial stone shared with two brothers reads:  “Capt. Tomas COTTON, born Jan. 17, 1785 and died June 9, 1819 in Havana.  Rossiter M. COTTON, born July 11, 1798 and died Oct. 4, 1870 in Jackson County, Louisiana. William C. COTTON, born April 17, 1804 and died Aug. 23 1805. Children of Rossiter and Priscilla COTTON.”

Father:                     Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

Mother:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.6 Captain John Winslow Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      29 Mar 1800

Birth Place:              Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     10 Sep 1878, age: 78

Death Place:             Green Bay, Wisconsin

Burial:                     Sep 1878

Burial Place:             Woodlawn Cemetery, Green Bay, Wisconsin

Father:                     Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

Mother:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

Misc. Notes: Birth: 

Mar. 29, 1800

Plymouth

Penobscot County

Maine, USA

Death: 

Sep. 10, 1878

Green Bay

Brown County

Wisconsin, USA

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH: (of wife, Mary Budleman Arndt), daughter of John Penn Arndt and Elizabeth Carpenter Arndt, born at Wilkes Barre, Pa., October 31, 1809, died at Green Bay, Wisconsin, September 16, 1896. She married May 6, 1825…

Captain John Winslow Cotton, USA. He was born at Plymouth, Mass., March 29, 1800, and died at Green Bay, Wisconsin, September 10, 1878. He graduated at West Point, in the class of 1823, and was inducted into the United States Army as second lieutenant. At the time of his marriage, he was captain in command at Fort Howard, Wisconsin.

He served in the Choctaw Campaign of 1830-31 and served in various posts in the west.

He resigned his commission in 1845 and was superintendent of schools in Bellevue, Wisconsin.

Later he served with distinction during the Civil War.

Mrs Cotton likewise entered the United States service during the war. She was mustered in, July 6, 1861, as a nurse in the field hospital corps, of the Fourth Wisconsin Regiment, with which she served one year.

CHILDREN (of Captain John W and Mary B Arndt Cotton):

i. John Rossiter Cotton, born July 6, 1836, died Dec 24, 1890, married Carrie Augusta Redfern.

ii. Elizabeth Arndt Cotton, born 1880, married Charles Royal Tyler.

iii. Priscilla Jackson Cotton, born July 4, 1833, died June 30, 1855, married Colonel James Henry Howe.

iv. Mary Gordon Cotton, born Aug 31, 1836, died Jan 4, 1893, married Colonel James Henry Howe.

v. Charles Arndt Cotton, born August 6, 1845, lived in Green Bay, married Allene Jane Kennedy.

SOURCE: “The Story of the Arndts: The Life, Antecedents and Descendants of Bernhard Arndt, who Emigrated to Pennsylvania in the Year 1731”, pages 234 & 235, Published Philadelphia by the Christopher Sower Company, 1922 – by John Stover Arndt (Warren Smedley Ely).

Information provided by Robert Kuhmann

Family links: 

 Spouse:

  Mary Budleman Arndt Cotton (1809 – 1896)*

*Calculated relationship

Burial:

Woodlawn Cemetery

Allouez

Brown County

Wisconsin, USA

Spouse:                   Mary Arndt (31 Oct 1809-16 Sep 1896)

Birth:                      31 Oct 1809

Birth Place:              Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania

Death:                     16 Sep 1896, age: 86

Death Place:             Green Bay, Wisconsin

Burial:                     Sep 1896

Burial Place:             Woodlawn Cemetery, Green Bay, Wisconsin

Misc. Notes: Birth: 

Oct. 31, 1809

Wilkes-Barre

Luzerne County

Pennsylvania, USA

Death: 

Sep. 16, 1896

Green Bay

Brown County

Wisconsin, USA

On July 6, 1861 at Racine, Wisconsin, Mary was mustered in as an Army nurse. She served in the hospital corps, 4th Wisconsin Regiment for 1 year.

Spouse = 82751228—BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH: Mary Budleman Arndt, daughter of John Penn Arndt and Elizabeth Carpenter Arndt, born at Wilkes Barre, Pa., October 31, 1809, died at Green Bay, Wisconsin, September 16, 1896. She married May 6, 1825, Captain John Winslow Cotton, USA. He was born at Plymouth, Mass., March 29, 1800, and died at Green Bay, Wisconsin, September 10, 1878. He graduated at West Point, in the class of 1823, and was inducted into the United States Army as second lieutenant. At the time of his marriage, he was captain in command at Fort Howard, Wisconsin. He served with distinction during the Civil War. Mrs Cotton likewise entered the United States service during the war. She was mustered in, July 6, 1861, as a nurse in the field hospital corps, of the Fourth Wisconsin Regiment, with which she served one year.CHILDRN (of Captain John W and Mary B Arndt Cotton):i. John Rossiter Cotton, born July 6, 1836, died Dec 24, 1890, married Carrie Augusta Redfern. ii. Elizabeth Arndt Cotton, born 1880, married Charles Royal Tyler.iii. Priscilla Jackson Cotton, born July 4, 1833, died June 30, 1855, married Colonel James Henry Howe.iv. Mary Gordon Cotton, born Aug 31, 1836, died Jan 4, 1893, married Colonel James Henry Howe.v. Charles Arndt Cotton, born August 6, 1845, lived in Green Bay, married Allene Jane Kennedy. SOURCE (GOOGLE Books): “The Story of the Arndts: The Life, Antecedents and Descendants of Bernhard Arndt, who Emigrated to Pennsylvania in the Year 1731”, pages 234 & 235, Published Philadelphia by the Christopher Sower Company, 1922 – by John Stover Arndt (Warren Smedley Ely). 

Family links: 

 Parents:

  John Penn Arndt (1780 – 1861)

  Elizabeth Carpenter Arndt (1780 – 1860)

 Spouse:

  John Winslow Cotton (1800 – 1878)

 Siblings:

  Philip Arndt (1804 – 1817)*

  Alexander Hamilton Arndt (1805 – 1847)*

  Mary Budleman Arndt Cotton (1809 – 1896)

  John Wallace Arndt (1815 – 1897)*

*Calculated relationship

Burial:

Woodlawn Cemetery

Allouez

Brown County

Wisconsin, USA

Marriage:                 6 May 1825

Marr Place:              Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.7a Roland Edwin Cotton*, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      4 Jan 1802

Birth Place:              Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

Mother:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

Spouse:                   Susan Augusta Watson (-1829)

Death:                     1829

Marriage:                 1 May 1828

Other spouses:          Louis Maria Sudler

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.7b Roland Edwin Cotton* (See above)

_____________________________________________________________

Spouse:                   Louis Maria Sudler (1808-10 Jan 1838)

Birth:                      1808

Death:                     10 Jan 1838, age: 30

Marriage:                 26 May 1828

2 Children…

                              Emery Wells Sudler (11 May 1836-16 Mar 1837)

                              Thomas E. Sudler (8 Jan 1838-aft Nov 1887)

Other spouses:          Susan Augusta Watson

(7) 1.1a.1.3.2.7b.1 Emery Wells Sudler Cotton, 3C3R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      11 May 1836

Death:                     16 Mar 1837, age: <1

Father:                     Roland Edwin Cotton, 2C4R (4 Jan 1802-)

Mother:                   Louis Maria Sudler (1808-10 Jan 1838)

(7) 1.1a.1.3.2.7b.2 Thomas E. Sudler Cotton, 3C3R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      8 Jan 1838

Death:                     aft Nov 1887, age: 49

Father:                     Roland Edwin Cotton, 2C4R (4 Jan 1802-)

Mother:                   Louis Maria Sudler (1808-10 Jan 1838)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.2.8 Mary Cotton, 2C4R

_____________________________________________________________

Birth:                      Jun 179025,25

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Memo:                    birth based on headstone inscription

Death:                     6 Aug 1791, age: 125,25

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Aug 1791

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Mary, dau. of Dr. Rosseter and Mrs. Priscilla COTTON, died Aug 6, 1791 aged 15 months & 6 days.”

Father:                     Dr. Rossiter Cotton, 1C5R (23 Mar 1758-Aug 1837)

Mother:                   Priscilla Jackson, 2C4R (13 Apr 1765-)

(5) 1.1a.1.3.3 Joanna Cotton, 1C5R

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Birth:                      176019,19

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Memo:                    birth year based on headstone inscription.

Death:                     2 Nov 1822, age: 6219,19

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Nov 182219,19

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Miss JoannaCOTTON, died Nov. 2, 1822, aged 62 years.”

Father:                     Rev. John Cotton, GGGG Granduncle (5 Apr 1712-4 Nov 1789)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 2C6R (7 Dec 1727-25 May 1800)

(5) 1.1a.1.3.4 Lucy Cotton15,15, 1C5R

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Birth:                      12 Feb 1768

Birth Place:              Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     15 Oct 1818, age: 50

Death Place:             Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Rev. John Cotton, GGGG Granduncle (5 Apr 1712-4 Nov 1789)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 2C6R (7 Dec 1727-25 May 1800)

Spouse:                   Charles Jackson, 2C4R (1 Mar 1770-8 Aug 1818)

Birth:                      1 Mar 1770

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     8 Aug 1818, age: 48

Death Place:             Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Thomas Jackson, 2C6R (15 Feb 1729-19 Sep 1794)

Mother:                   Sarah Taylor, 1C5R (20 Sep 1733-27 Oct 1811)

Marriage:                 1794

Marr Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

7 Children…

                              Charles (1794-)

                              Thomas (1795-)

                              Lucy (1798-)

                              Charles Thomas (21 Jun 1805-28 Aug 1880)

                              Lydia (Lydian) (20 Sep 1802-13 Nov 1892)

                              Charles Thomas (1805-)

                              John Cotton (abt 1807-)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.4.1 Charles Jackson, 2C4R

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Birth:                      1794

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Charles Jackson, 2C4R (1 Mar 1770-8 Aug 1818)

Mother:                   Lucy Cotton, 1C5R (12 Feb 1768-15 Oct 1818)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.4.2 Thomas Jackson, 2C4R

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Birth:                      1795

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Charles Jackson, 2C4R (1 Mar 1770-8 Aug 1818)

Mother:                   Lucy Cotton, 1C5R (12 Feb 1768-15 Oct 1818)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.4.3 Lucy Jackson, 2C4R

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Birth:                      1798

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Charles Jackson, 2C4R (1 Mar 1770-8 Aug 1818)

Mother:                   Lucy Cotton, 1C5R (12 Feb 1768-15 Oct 1818)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.4.4 Charles Thomas Jackson, 2C4R

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Birth:                      21 Jun 1805

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     28 Aug 1880, age: 75

Death Place:             Somerville, Massachusetts

Burial:                     30 Aug 1880

Burial Place:             Cambridge, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Mt. Auburn Cemetery

Father:                     Charles Jackson, 2C4R (1 Mar 1770-8 Aug 1818)

Mother:                   Lucy Cotton, 1C5R (12 Feb 1768-15 Oct 1818)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.4.5 Lydia (Lydian) Jackson, 2C4R

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Birth:                      20 Sep 1802

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township,  Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Death:                     13 Nov 1892, age: 90

Death Place:             Concord, Massachusetts

Father:                     Charles Jackson, 2C4R (1 Mar 1770-8 Aug 1818)

Mother:                   Lucy Cotton, 1C5R (12 Feb 1768-15 Oct 1818)

Brief Bio: Lidian Jackson Emerson was married for forty-seven years to one of the most famous philosophical and literary figures in American history. As Ralph Waldo Emerson’s second wife, she bore and raised his four children, managed his house and entertained his many guests with her remarkable wit and intelligence, yet she remains in the shadows of history while her friends Margaret Fuller and Henry David Thoreau enjoy universal interest and praise.

Why?

 There are several possible reasons why Lidian has been overlooked.  The most obvious is her husband’s monumental reputation.  Emerson was extraordinarily famous in his own day, friends with the best-known intellectual lights of his generation, he corresponded with philosophers and scholars around the world, counseled Presidents, mentored a generation of reformers, and wrote essays and books that profoundly influenced the American viewpoint in the world.  Another possible reason is that the Emerson’s marriage was a rocky one.  Although the first few years were happy enough, they grew apart after the birth of their first son, Waldo. By the early 1840’s Emerson was already writing critiques of marriage in his journal. The emotional distance between them grew with Emerson’s fame and influence.

Were there other reasons? Was Ellen, the Emerson’s oldest daughter, a life-long and rather conservative spinster, partly responsible for Lidian’s slighted reputation? At this historical distance it’s hard to know for sure, but the facts of the case encourage speculation.

 Born on September 20, 1802 in Plymouth, Massachusetts, the fifth child of Charles and Lucy [Cotton] Jackson, Lydia Jackson was one of three children who survived into adulthood. Her older sister, Lucy, was abandoned by her husband in 1834, leaving her to care for her two young children, Frank and Sophia. Lydia’s younger brother, Charles Thomas Jackson, would become of the most highly respected physicians in New England. He would spend many years of his adult life embroiled in controversies over the invention of the surgical use of ether, and the development of the telegraph-both ideas which he claimed to have authored but for which he was never given proper credit.

Lidian married Ralph Waldo Emerson on September 14, 1835, in the parlor of the family home overlooking Plymouth Harbor. Now the headquarters of The Mayflower Society, Winslow House, as it was called in Lidian’s day, was one of the most impressive homes in Plymouth. Originally built by Edward Winslow, the great-grandson of Governor Winslow, it had been purchased by Lidian’s grandfather in 1782. Lidian was born and raised there until the age of sixteen, when the deaths of both parents within a few months forced her to move in with relatives. It was still the family home, however, and later was to become the residence of Dr. Charles T. Jackson, Lidian’s younger brother.

This marriage was Emerson’s second. His first wife, Ellen Louisa Tucker, died of tuberculosis at the age of 19, only eighteen months after they were wed. Emerson, deeply in love with Ellen, continued to carry a torch for the rest of his life. Lidian had not been particularly interested in marriage before she met Emerson. At 32, she was well-established as an intellectual and charitable woman in Plymouth, one of the new lights who sought reforms to both church and society. She had settled comfortably into the life of maiden aunt to Lucy’s two children, Frank and Sophia Brown by the time she met Emerson. Though she was four years younger than her sister, Lidian was nevertheless possessed of unusual confidence and certitude and took on the role of provider and protector. She became well known in Plymouth as a graceful, charitable woman who took particular joy in her garden. She was also known for her sharp wit and contentious nature. She loved nothing better than a vigorous debate. Though she tried to tame this side of herself, it impressed many, and she was favorably compared with her friend and contemporary, Margaret Fuller. She was a reformer and activist by nature, horrified by slavery, appalled by the treatment of Native Americans, and deeply sensitive to the welfare of animals. She spent years vigorously prevailing upon her famous husband to take a public stand on her causes.

Immediately after the wedding, Lidian and Emerson moved to Concord, where she saw her new home for the first time. An L-shaped clapboard building situated on the Cambridge Turnpike at the eastern end of town, the house had been built seven years before by a Mr. Coolidge, and was known in Concord as “Coolidge Castle.” The Emersons later renamed it “Bush.” As soon as they settled in, the Emersons hired carpenters to expand the house, adding two large rooms (one upstairs and one down) to the back of the house, turning the L into a square. These rooms were to be the apartment for Charles Emerson and his fiancée, Elizabeth Hoar, after their marriage. Charles, Emerson’s youngest brother, was studying for the law in Concord and the two men planned to live together as an extended family. Tragically, Charles died of tuberculosis in May of 1836, less than a year after Lidian and Emerson were married. Elizabeth Hoar was devastated and never married, though she continued to remain so close to the Emerson family that she was regarded as “Aunt Lizzie” by the Emerson children.

  The Emersons had four children: Waldo, born on October 30, 1836; Ellen, born February 24, 1939; Edith, born November 22, 1841; and Edward, born July 10, 1844. The oldest child, Waldo-a charming and intelligent boy-contracted scarlet fever in January, 1842, and died tragically at the age of five. The Emersons’ marriage, which had weathered the usual tensions with the coming of children and had been complicated by a deepening split in religious viewpoint, was dealt a blow in little Waldo’s death from which the relationship never fully recovered.  Emerson retreated into his writing and increasingly demanding lecture schedule, while Lidian withdrew into a prolonged and lonely bereavement.  She had her house and children to attend, including the infant Edith, but nothing could lift the terrible burden of her grief.  

In April of 1841, Emerson had invited Henry David Thoreau to live with the Emerson family.  In exchange for room and board, Thoreau agreed to act as handyman and gardener. This was a good situation for both parties, for Emerson was notably inept with a hammer and shovel, and Thoreau needed a quiet place to write, away from the noise and confusion of his mother’s boarding house.  The routine of the household was unusual for the time – visitors commented on the strange way the different household members dispersed after breakfast on solitary tasks.  Lidian’s and Thoreau’s duties must have coincided and thrown them together often.  It’s very likely that their strong friendship developed at this time.  They shared a passion for abolition and a concern for animals.  The two particularly enjoyed discussing philosophy and religion.  Lidian was known in her own day as a lively debater, and no doubt Thoreau enjoyed the exchanges immensely.  

 In early January of 1842, two weeks before Waldo passed away, Thoreau’s older brother, John, died of lockjaw.  Thoreau was devastated and developed what was probably a psychosomatic case of lockjaw.  By the time he had recovered, Waldo Emerson was dead.  In the weeks and months that followed, in the course of the normal Emerson household routine, Lidian and Thoreau spent many hours together, and almost certainly shared their grief with each other.  They almost certainly provided support and sympathy for each other, which strengthened their relationship. 

In 1843, Emerson arranged for Thoreau to tutor his nephews, the sons of William and Susan Emerson, on Staten Island, New York.  In a cryptic comment to Nathaniel Hawthorne, Emerson noted that Thoreau’s presence in the Emerson home had become “an inconvenience.”  Thoreau apparently had some ambivalence about his move – though he wanted to explore the world of New York publishing, he was reluctant to leave Concord.  His sojourn on Staten Island did not last long. He was back in Concord by mid-December of that year, living once again in his mother’s boarding house. 

 The Emerson’s last child, Edward Waldo Emerson, was born in July 1844, a large, full-term baby.  By this time, Emerson’s lecture schedule required him to be often away from home, sometimes for weeks at a time, forcing Lidian to take on the responsibilities of the financial management of the family. She was often ill, perhaps because of the twin stresses of trying to fulfill her tasks, and preserve what was clearly a troubled marriage.  A perfectionist, she saw one of her chief responsibilities as playing hostess to the endless stream of visitors.  Margaret Fuller was a frequent visitor and sometimes stayed with the Emersons for more than a month, residing in the “Red Room,” a handsome guest room across the hall from Emerson’s study.  Lidian was an admirer of Margaret Fuller, and had attended her “Cnversations” in Boston and had even been favorably compared to her in the past, but sometimes felt shut out by Fuller’s close friendship with Emerson.

By 1847 the Emerson marriage was severely stressed.  Emerson, whose fame had risen dramatically in the preceding years, decided to accept Thomas Carlyle’s invitation to lecture in Europe and arranged for passage to England in the early fall of 1847.  At Lidian’s request, he asked Thoreau to leave his cabin at Walden Pond and move into the Emerson house again.  Thoreau agreed to help manage the house and took up residence a few weeks before Emerson’s departure.  During the ten months of his absence, Thoreau acted as Lidian’s chief assistant.  He helped her manage Emerson’s financial affairs, maintained the house and gardens, and helped care for the children.  Some letters from Thoreau to Emerson at this time indicate some annoyance toward Emerson on Thoreau’s part – whether it was caused by Emerson’s inattention to Lidian, who was ill with jaundice for much of that time, or some other circumstance, is speculation.  There is a poignant and pointed passage in one of Thoreau’s letters in which he describes little Eddy (who was three at the time) asking Thoreau if he would be his father.  Was this bit of reportage intended to hurt Emerson? 

After Emerson’sreturn to Concord in late July of 1848, there was a subtle but important shift in the Emerson marriage.  They seemed to settle down, and no longer played as many visitors or invited them to stay the night.  Thoreau left the Emerson residence immediately upon Emerson’s return and the friendship between the two men was noticeably strained afterward.  Though they still saw each other frequently, and Thoreau still came and went in the Emerson house as if he were family, there was a palpable tension between them.  They no longer walked together, and Thoreau turned to an in-depth study of nature. 

 On July 19, 1850, Margaret Fuller drowned with her husband, Count Ossoli, and their 20 month old son in a shipwreck off Fire Island in New York. She was returning to the United States with a manuscript of her experiences in the Italian uprisings. When Emerson learned of her death he was devastated, and began almost immediately to work on a book memorializing her.

 Though there is no documented evidence that the Emersons ever housed slaves during the Underground Railroad, Lidian and Emerson signed a paper in 1854, declaring that they would not turn away a refugee from slavery, should one appear at their door.  They hosted John Brown on a fund raising tour of New England in 1857.  Lidian was a passionate advocate of abolition and when Brown was executed in December of 1859, she attended the vigil ceremony in Concord that had been organized by Emerson, Alcott, and Thoreau.  The Civil War began in 1861, and Lidian believed Emancipation would follow.   She was, however, reluctant to allow her son, Edward, to join the army, for he was young and had recently suffered a serious bout of typhoid fever.

 In the winter of 1862, Emerson traveled to Washington where he met and talked with Abraham Lincoln.  In May of that year, Thoreau died in his home of tuberculosis. Emerson took over the funeral arrangements, and also persuaded Sophia Hawthorne to loan him Thoreau’s journals, which he spent the next month reading.  He arranged to have the funeral in the church, over the objections of some of Thoreau’s friends, who knew of Thoreau’s aversion to the institutional church.  Emerson gave the funeral oration, and soon expanded the speech into an essay, which was published in The Atlantic Monthly. 

In 1865, Edith Emerson married William Hathaway Forbes. The Emersons’ first grandchild, Ralph Emerson Forbes was born the next year.  Edith was the only daughter to marry.  Ellen, named for Emerson’s beloved first wife, dedicated her life to the care of her parents, and served as traveling companion and aid to her father.

 In June of 1872, a fire broke out in the attic of the Emerson home.  The only people at home that night were Waldo and Lidian, but they escaped safely, and neighbors soon came to help battle the blaze.  When the fire was finally extinguished, it was clear that much of the house was in ruins.  It would have to be restored.  Money was raised and so much was given that there was enough for Emerson to travel abroad once more.  This time he went with Ellen, who by then was a necessary adjunct in his lectures and writing.  Emerson, sadly, was falling into dementia, and often had problems recalling the names of familiar objects.  Lidian, who never traveled with Emerson, stayed with their daughter Edith while Emerson was abroad and the house was being restored.

As Emerson deteriorated, Lidian became healthier and stronger.  She began to go out more, and became more noticeably social.  In 1881 she danced at Ellen’s 42nd birthday ball. At the age of 85, she attended the Concord School of Philosophy. Emerson died on April 27, 1882.  His son, Edward, a medical doctor, administered ether in his last hours to relieve his pain.  From that day on, Lidian kept a lamp burning in Emerson’s study as a memorial. She lived for 10

Spouse:                   Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-27 Apr 1882)

Birth:                      1803

Birth Place:              Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts

Death:                     27 Apr 1882, age: 79

Death Place:             Concord, Middlesex County, Massachusetts

Marriage:                 14 Sep 1835

(6) 1.1a.1.3.4.6 Charles Thomas Jackson, 2C4R

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Birth:                      1805

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Charles Jackson, 2C4R (1 Mar 1770-8 Aug 1818)

Mother:                   Lucy Cotton, 1C5R (12 Feb 1768-15 Oct 1818)

(6) 1.1a.1.3.4.7 John Cotton Jackson, 2C4R

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Birth:                      abt 1807

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Charles Jackson, 2C4R (1 Mar 1770-8 Aug 1818)

Mother:                   Lucy Cotton, 1C5R (12 Feb 1768-15 Oct 1818)

(5) 1.1a.1.3.5 Sarah “Sally” Cotton, 1C5R

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Birth:                      1 Dec 1763

Death:                     22 Nov 1828, age: 64

Father:                     Rev. John Cotton, GGGG Granduncle (5 Apr 1712-4 Nov 1789)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 2C6R (7 Dec 1727-25 May 1800)

(4) 1.1a.1.4 Bethia Cotton, GGGG Grandaunt

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Birth:                      8 Jun 171414,14

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Massachusetts

Death:                     25 Sep 1735, age: 21

Death Place:             Plymouth  Township, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

Father:                     Josiah Cotton, 5G Grandfather (8 Jan 1679-19 Aug 1756)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 5G Grandmother (10 Apr 1687-27 May 1756)

Spouse:                   Abiell Pulsifer

Marriage:                 1 Mar 1733

1 Child…

                              Joseph (7 Dec 1733-28 Dec 1733)

(5) 1.1a.1.4.1 Joseph Pulsifer, 1C5R

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Birth:                      7 Dec 1733

Death:                     28 Dec 1733, age: <1

Father:                     Abiell Pulsifer

Mother:                   Bethia Cotton, GGGG Grandaunt (8 Jun 1714-25 Sep 1735)

(4) 1.1a.1.5 Colonel Theophilus Cotton14,14,26,26, GGGG Grandfather

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Birth:                      31 Mar 171627,14,27,14

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Massachusetts

Death:                     18 Feb 1782, age: 6528,28

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Feb 178228,29,30,28,30

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headstone reads:  “Co. Theophilus COTTON, died Feb. 18, 1782. AE 66 years.”  Fotestone reads:  “Theophilus / Cotton”

Father:                     Josiah Cotton, 5G Grandfather (8 Jan 1679-19 Aug 1756)

Mother:                   Hannah Sturtevant, 5G Grandmother (10 Apr 1687-27 May 1756)

Occupation:              Commander of the Plymouth Regiment during American Revolution

Brief Bio: PLYMOUTH ROCK & COL. THEOPHILUS COTTON31

According to Deacon Spooner, plans had been made in 1741 to build a wharf on the waterfront that would cover a large rock at  the base of Cole’s Hill. When Elder Faunce heard of this, he had himself carried in a chair three miles to the spot. There, before a large crowd of people, including the six-year-old Ephraim Spooner, he pointed out the threatened rock as the very one that his father had assured him had received the footsteps of the Pilgrims as they landed. The old man “bedewed it with his tears and bid to it an everlasting adieu.” Apparently this dramatic show of emotion had less effect on the builders than it did on Ephraim, for they built their wharf anyway, leaving only a small hump of the rock above ground. No one thought more about that encumbering fragment, except for a few cursing teamsters as their carts bounced over it, until the deacon made his revelation a generation later.

As Revolution against the mother country became inevitable members of the Old Colony Club found themselves so divided politically that they disbanded. But the observance of Forefathers’ Day continued, and the legend of Plymouth Rock spread.

Edward Winslow marked the rock’s site on a British survey map of Plymouth made in 1774. Later that year, with the sides now drawn in the coming struggle, the Sons of Liberty (called by Winslow the “Sons of Licentiousness”) were the first to appropriate the rock’s burgeoning symbolism. Militia Colonel Theophilus Cotton and a band of Liberty Boys appeared on the wharf on December 22 with a carriage and thirty yoke of oxen, prepared to take the rock away. They dug down and managed to elevate it from its bed with large screws, but as the attempted to move it onto the carriage it split in two. Some of the more patriotic present saw the split as symbolic of the division between England and the colonies – or so they said afterward. Colonel Cotton and his boys then let the bottom section drop back into its bed, where it remained a few inches above the earth. The top segment, weighing four or five tons, was carted to the Town Square and placed ceremoniously beside a large elm used to support the newly erected Liberty Pole which flew their “Liberty or Death” flag.

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Plymouth Rock: Symbol of the New World

Plymouth Rock is one of America’s most visited historic sites, but this famous chunk of bedrock wasn’t always the shrine it is today.  The first settler made no mention of it in historical accounts about the famous landing on December 21, 1620. In fact, before going ashore to mainland, they took refuge that first night at Clark’s Island, just across from the harbor.

Focus on the Rock as a historic site was first documented by James Thatcher in his History of Plymouth  (1832). Thatcher writes that when the town announced plans in 1741 to erect a wharf in Plymouth Harbor, Elder Thomas Faunce, 95, a Mayflower descendant and third ruling elder of the Plymouth Church, identified the rock as the very one the forefathers had set foot upon their arrival. The wharf was built without covering the rock.

Patriotic fervor in the Revolutionary War years drew more public attention to the rock in 1774. A band of patriots led by Col. Theophilus Cotton attempted to move the rock to a more public place, with about 30 yoke of oxen, however the rock split in the process. The bottom half was left embedded in the wharf and the top part was carried to Town Square and leaned up against an elm tree.

In 1834, the rock fragment was removed from Town Square to Pilgrim Hall. Preservation of Plymouth Rock was one of the main goals of the Pilgrim Society, founded in 1820 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the PilgrimsÙ landing. America’s new shrine was enclosed in an iron fence.

In 1880, the two parts of the rock were joined together and the entire rock was moved back to the harbor to be placed under the shelter of a monumental Victorian canopy. The date “1620” was carved into the rock at this time. Here the rock rested until 1920.

During Plymouth’s Tercentenary Celebration, the rock was again moved while waterfront renovations took place. During the summer of 1921 it lay in an empty lot on the waterfront awaiting its new resting place under a portico donated by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America. The redesign of the waterfront was planned so that when the Rock was placed on the edge of the shore, the high tide would surround it and it would appear as historians of the day thought it did in 1620. Plymouth Rock was dedicated November 29, 1921. The Rock and its surrounding grounds were donated by the Pilgrim Society to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

– 1997 Memorial Press Group

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COL. THEOPHILUS COTTON’S SLAVE  From the Christian Science Monitor

There is nothing speculative, on the other hand, about blacks’ contribution to American independence. In preparing an exhibition scheduled for July 1998 at the Commonwealth Museum in Boston, Crosby has fleshed out the stories of four black families who formed Parting Ways, a settlement on the town line between Kingston and Plymouth, Mass.

Among them was Quamony Quash, who was just 15 in 1775 when he took up arms under the command of his owner, Col. Theophilus Cotton.  In 1781, Cotton promised Quash his freedom if he reenlisted for three years.

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Cotton Family connection to Ralph Waldo Emerson-

The brother of Col. Theophilus Cotton, John Cotton, had a daughter, Lucy Cotton, who married Charles Jackson and their daughter (John Cotton’s grand daughter) became the second wife of Ralph Waldo Emerson.

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Cotton, Theophilus, Plymouth.  Colonel: return of provisions delivered said Cotton for his regt., dated Roxbury, June 5, 1775;  also, general order dated Headquarters, Cambridge, July 22, 1775; said Cotton’s regiment assigned to a brigade to be commanded by Brig. Gen. Thomas form part of right wing of army under Maj. Gen. Ward, and to be stationed at Rosbury; also, muster roll of field and staff officers; engaged April 23, 1775; service to Aug. 1, 1775, 3 mos. 16 days; also, return of field and staff officers dated Camp Rosbury Oct. 7, 1775; also, official record of a ballot by the House of Representatives dated Jan. 31, 1777; said Cotton chosen Colonel of 1st Plymouth County Regeiment; appointment concurred in by Council Jan. 31, 1777; reported commissioned Feb. 1, 1777; also, Colnel, Brig. Gen. Palmer’s bridgade; return of officers who marched on “a late expedition” to Rhode Island, dated Germantown, Dec. 11, 1777; also, Colonel, 1st Plymouth County Regiment; appointed March 3, 1781; served until March 31, 1781; [p.13] service, 29 days, at Newport, R.I., by order of His Excellency John Hancock; roll sworn to in Plymouth Co.32

Cotton, Theophilus (Mass.) Colonel Massachusetts Regiment, 27th May to December 1775; Colonel Massachusetts Militia, 1776-1781. 33

Revolutionary War Muster Rolls, 1775-1783:  Colonel Theophilus Cotton Esqr.  Roll Box 42  Roll Extract 0  Roll Record 24634

4th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)

The 4th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel Theophilus Cotton, of Plymouth,[29] who served as colonel until the end of the year.[30] In August 1775, Cotton’s Regiment was designated “The 16th Regiment of Foot.” It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.

(NEED MORE RESEARCH)

Revolutionary War Document (1776-1781)

Listing Names of Black & Native American Soldiers

Among the most important Revolutionary War documents in the collection of the Pilgrim Society, Lieutenant Colonel Nathaniel Goodwin’s recruiting and enlistment records for Plymouth County, covering the years 1776 to 1781, stand out for their detailed information about several hundred officers and soldiers and their military careers. Goodwin chronicled the expeditions and their participants, promotions (including his own, from Captain through the rank of Major to that of Lieutenant Colonel), and “remarkable events” (mostly events of the war, but beginning with “The Creation of the World” and “Noah’s Flood”).

For many soldiers he listed name, age, stature, complexion, color of eyes and hair, trade, town engaged for and place of abode, company provided from and the term and date of enlistment. Among the lists are found the names of 41 men identified by the terms “Negro,” “Black,” or “Mulatto,” as well as 19 identified as “Indians.”

Although Crispus Attucks, a man of African and Native American heritage, is now famous as the first to die in the Revolutionary War, the names of Revolutionary War soldiers from these groups have mostly been forgotten, like the names of others in the rank and file. By publishing the list of these soldiers from Lieutenant Colonel Goodwin’s manuscript record, Pilgrim Hall hopes to contribute to the recognition due to these patriots.

Black Soldiers of the Revolutionary War from Plymouth County :

a list of soldiers identified as “Negro,” “Black,” or “Mulatto,” compiled from recruiting documents in the collection of the Pilgrim Society, by Jeremy D. Bangs, Visiting Curator of Manuscripts, Pilgrim Hall Museum. ( c The Pilgrim Society, 1996)

Silas Accro, age 29, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Pero Blakely, age 28, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

William Blye, age 43, from Rochester, N. Hammond’s company, Col. Sprout’s regiment

Peter Booth, age 17, from Marshfield, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

James Bowes, age 17, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Calla Brown, age 44, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Primuss Cabuss, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment (probably identical with Prince Cobus)

Prince Cobus, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Henry Cook, age 38, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Solomon Dick, age 18, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Joseph Fowler, age 26, from Pembroke, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Asher Freeman, age 23, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Benjamin Gould, age 16, from Wareham, Gibbs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Camaramsawde Gould, age 17, from Wareham, Gibbs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Jack Hammond, age 26, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Peter Haskell, age 33, from Rochester, Briggs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Bristol Howard, age 43, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Cato Howe, age 25, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Jeremiah Jones, age 26, from Bridgewater, J. Allen’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Winsor Little, age 17, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Quash Mathrok, age 24, from Bridgewater, Daniel Packard’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

John McCarter, age 22, from Marshfield, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Cuff Mitchell, age 33, from Bridgewater, Washburn’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Prince Newport, age 30, from Plimpton, N. Hammond’s company, Col. Sprout’s regiment

Robert Peagin, age 36, from Bridgewater, Kingman’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

William Pittman, age 28, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Andrew Pompy, age 33, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Quamany Quash, age 17, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Jubiter Richards, age 30, from Bridgewater, Kingman’s company, Col. Mitchell’s regiment

Toney Rose, age 18, from Middleborough, Churchill’s company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Nehamiah Samson, age 16, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Ceasor Smith, age 24, from Plimpton, Col. Cotton’s regiment

Cesar Steward, age 29, from Pembroke, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Zeba Sutton, age 17 from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Toby Tolbert, age 45, from Bridgewater, Nathaniel Packard’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Jack Tomson, age 40, from Kingston, Capt. Rider’s company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

John Troy, age 21, from Bridgewater, Allden’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Plato Turner, age 28, from Plymouth, Capt. Rider’s company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Salmon Washburn, age 23, from Bridgewater, Allen’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

John Williams, age 26, from Kingston, Lt. Simmons’ company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Uriah Williams, age 29, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Native American Soldiers of the Revolutionary War from Plymouth County :

a list of soldiers identified as “Indian,” compiled from recruiting documents in the collection of the Pilgrim Society, by Jeremy D. Bangs, Visiting Curator of Manuscripts, Pilgrim Hall Museum. ( c The Pilgrim Society, 1996)

John Barker, age 16, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

John Barker, age 29, from Rochester, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

John Capy, age 17, from Rochester, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Joshua Compsett, age 26, from Scituate, T. Cushing’s company, Col. Cushing’s regiment

Bristoll Davids, age 17, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Thomas Humphrey, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Benjamin Jeffery, age 21, from Kingston, Lt. Simmons company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Cesar Merea, age 16, drummer, from Pembroke, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Samuel Mingo, age 28, from Bridgewater, Washburn’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Parm Mouth, age 18, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

David Peauge, age 19, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Benjamin Simon, Jr., age 16, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

James Simons, age 22, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Josiah Soul, age 22, from Plymouth (also enlisted under the name John Methricks, and listed as from Rochester), Lt. Leonard’s company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Peleg Stewart, age 16, from Rochester, Lt. Col. Whites regiment

Benjamin Uncket, age 34, from Pembroke, T. Cushing’s company, Col. Cushing’s regiment

Jo. Warrich, age 17, from Marshfield, regiment of Col. Cushing or Lt. Col. Hall

Isaac Wickums, age 16, from Pembroke, T. Cushing’s company, Col. Cushing’s regiment

Samuel Word, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

PLYMOUTH ROCK & COL. THEOPHILUS COTTON31

According to Deacon Spooner, plans had been made in 1741 to build a wharf on the waterfront that would cover a large rock at  the base of Cole’s Hill. When Elder Faunce heard of this, he had himself carried in a chair three miles to the spot. There, before a large crowd of people, including the six-year-old Ephraim Spooner, he pointed out the threatened rock as the very one that his father had assured him had received the footsteps of the Pilgrims as they landed. The old man “bedewed it with his tears and bid to it an everlasting adieu.” Apparently this dramatic show of emotion had less effect on the builders than it did on Ephraim, for they built their wharf anyway, leaving only a small hump of the rock above ground. No one thought more about that encumbering fragment, except for a few cursing teamsters as their carts bounced over it, until the deacon made his revelation a generation later.

As Revolution against the mother country became inevitable members of the Old Colony Club found themselves so divided politically that they disbanded. But the observance of Forefathers’ Day continued, and the legend of Plymouth Rock spread.

Edward Winslow marked the rock’s site on a British survey map of Plymouth made in 1774. Later that year, with the sides now drawn in the coming struggle, the Sons of Liberty (called by Winslow the “Sons of Licentiousness”) were the first to appropriate the rock’s burgeoning symbolism. Militia Colonel Theophilus Cotton and a band of Liberty Boys appeared on the wharf on December 22 with a carriage and thirty yoke of oxen, prepared to take the rock away. They dug down and managed to elevate it from its bed with large screws, but as the attempted to move it onto the carriage it split in two. Some of the more patriotic present saw the split as symbolic of the division between England and the colonies – or so they said afterward. Colonel Cotton and his boys then let the bottom section drop back into its bed, where it remained a few inches above the earth. The top segment, weighing four or five tons, was carted to the Town Square and placed ceremoniously beside a large elm used to support the newly erected Liberty Pole which flew their “Liberty or Death” flag.

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Plymouth Rock: Symbol of the New World

Plymouth Rock is one of America’s most visited historic sites, but this famous chunk of bedrock wasn’t always the shrine it is today.  The first settler made no mention of it in historical accounts about the famous landing on December 21, 1620. In fact, before going ashore to mainland, they took refuge that first night at Clark’s Island, just across from the harbor.

Focus on the Rock as a historic site was first documented by James Thatcher in his History of Plymouth  (1832). Thatcher writes that when the town announced plans in 1741 to erect a wharf in Plymouth Harbor, Elder Thomas Faunce, 95, a Mayflower descendant and third ruling elder of the Plymouth Church, identified the rock as the very one the forefathers had set foot upon their arrival. The wharf was built without covering the rock.

Patriotic fervor in the Revolutionary War years drew more public attention to the rock in 1774. A band of patriots led by Col. Theophilus Cotton attempted to move the rock to a more public place, with about 30 yoke of oxen, however the rock split in the process. The bottom half was left embedded in the wharf and the top part was carried to Town Square and leaned up against an elm tree.

In 1834, the rock fragment was removed from Town Square to Pilgrim Hall. Preservation of Plymouth Rock was one of the main goals of the Pilgrim Society, founded in 1820 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the PilgrimsÙ landing. America’s new shrine was enclosed in an iron fence.

In 1880, the two parts of the rock were joined together and the entire rock was moved back to the harbor to be placed under the shelter of a monumental Victorian canopy. The date “1620” was carved into the rock at this time. Here the rock rested until 1920.

During Plymouth’s Tercentenary Celebration, the rock was again moved while waterfront renovations took place. During the summer of 1921 it lay in an empty lot on the waterfront awaiting its new resting place under a portico donated by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America. The redesign of the waterfront was planned so that when the Rock was placed on the edge of the shore, the high tide would surround it and it would appear as historians of the day thought it did in 1620. Plymouth Rock was dedicated November 29, 1921. The Rock and its surrounding grounds were donated by the Pilgrim Society to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

– 1997 Memorial Press Group

____________________________________________________________________________

COL. THEOPHILUS COTTON’S SLAVE  From the Christian Science Monitor

There is nothing speculative, on the other hand, about blacks’ contribution to American independence. In preparing an exhibition scheduled for July 1998 at the Commonwealth Museum in Boston, Crosby has fleshed out the stories of four black families who formed Parting Ways, a settlement on the town line between Kingston and Plymouth, Mass.

Among them was Quamony Quash, who was just 15 in 1775 when he took up arms under the command of his owner, Col. Theophilus Cotton.  In 1781, Cotton promised Quash his freedom if he reenlisted for three years.

___________________________________________________________________________

Cotton Family connection to Ralph Waldo Emerson-

The brother of Col. Theophilus Cotton, John Cotton, had a daughter, Lucy Cotton, who married Charles Jackson and their daughter (John Cotton’s grand daughter) became the second wife of Ralph Waldo Emerson.

___________________________________________________________________________

Military: Cotton, Theophilus, Plymouth.  Colonel: return of provisions delivered said Cotton for his regt., dated Roxbury, June 5, 1775;  also, general order dated Headquarters, Cambridge, July 22, 1775; said Cotton’s regiment assigned to a brigade to be commanded by Brig. Gen. Thomas form part of right wing of army under Maj. Gen. Ward, and to be stationed at Rosbury; also, muster roll of field and staff officers; engaged April 23, 1775; service to Aug. 1, 1775, 3 mos. 16 days; also, return of field and staff officers dated Camp Rosbury Oct. 7, 1775; also, official record of a ballot by the House of Representatives dated Jan. 31, 1777; said Cotton chosen Colonel of 1st Plymouth County Regeiment; appointment concurred in by Council Jan. 31, 1777; reported commissioned Feb. 1, 1777; also, Colnel, Brig. Gen. Palmer’s bridgade; return of officers who marched on “a late expedition” to Rhode Island, dated Germantown, Dec. 11, 1777; also, Colonel, 1st Plymouth County Regiment; appointed March 3, 1781; served until March 31, 1781; [p.13] service, 29 days, at Newport, R.I., by order of His Excellency John Hancock; roll sworn to in Plymouth Co.32

Cotton, Theophilus (Mass.) Colonel Massachusetts Regiment, 27th May to December 1775; Colonel Massachusetts Militia, 1776-1781. 33

Revolutionary War Muster Rolls, 1775-1783:  Colonel Theophilus Cotton Esqr.  Roll Box 42  Roll Extract 0  Roll Record 24634

4th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)

The 4th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel Theophilus Cotton, of Plymouth,[29] who served as colonel until the end of the year.[30] In August 1775, Cotton’s Regiment was designated “The 16th Regiment of Foot.” It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.

(NEED MORE RESEARCH)

Revolutionary War Document (1776-1781)

Listing Names of Black & Native American Soldiers

Among the most important Revolutionary War documents in the collection of the Pilgrim Society, Lieutenant Colonel Nathaniel Goodwin’s recruiting and enlistment records for Plymouth County, covering the years 1776 to 1781, stand out for their detailed information about several hundred officers and soldiers and their military careers. Goodwin chronicled the expeditions and their participants, promotions (including his own, from Captain through the rank of Major to that of Lieutenant Colonel), and “remarkable events” (mostly events of the war, but beginning with “The Creation of the World” and “Noah’s Flood”).

For many soldiers he listed name, age, stature, complexion, color of eyes and hair, trade, town engaged for and place of abode, company provided from and the term and date of enlistment. Among the lists are found the names of 41 men identified by the terms “Negro,” “Black,” or “Mulatto,” as well as 19 identified as “Indians.”

Although Crispus Attucks, a man of African and Native American heritage, is now famous as the first to die in the Revolutionary War, the names of Revolutionary War soldiers from these groups have mostly been forgotten, like the names of others in the rank and file. By publishing the list of these soldiers from Lieutenant Colonel Goodwin’s manuscript record, Pilgrim Hall hopes to contribute to the recognition due to these patriots.

Black Soldiers of the Revolutionary War from Plymouth County :

a list of soldiers identified as “Negro,” “Black,” or “Mulatto,” compiled from recruiting documents in the collection of the Pilgrim Society, by Jeremy D. Bangs, Visiting Curator of Manuscripts, Pilgrim Hall Museum. ( c The Pilgrim Society, 1996)

Silas Accro, age 29, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Pero Blakely, age 28, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

William Blye, age 43, from Rochester, N. Hammond’s company, Col. Sprout’s regiment

Peter Booth, age 17, from Marshfield, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

James Bowes, age 17, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Calla Brown, age 44, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Primuss Cabuss, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment (probably identical with Prince Cobus)

Prince Cobus, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Henry Cook, age 38, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Solomon Dick, age 18, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Joseph Fowler, age 26, from Pembroke, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Asher Freeman, age 23, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Benjamin Gould, age 16, from Wareham, Gibbs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Camaramsawde Gould, age 17, from Wareham, Gibbs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Jack Hammond, age 26, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Peter Haskell, age 33, from Rochester, Briggs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Bristol Howard, age 43, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Cato Howe, age 25, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Jeremiah Jones, age 26, from Bridgewater, J. Allen’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Winsor Little, age 17, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Quash Mathrok, age 24, from Bridgewater, Daniel Packard’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

John McCarter, age 22, from Marshfield, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Cuff Mitchell, age 33, from Bridgewater, Washburn’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Prince Newport, age 30, from Plimpton, N. Hammond’s company, Col. Sprout’s regiment

Robert Peagin, age 36, from Bridgewater, Kingman’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

William Pittman, age 28, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Andrew Pompy, age 33, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Quamany Quash, age 17, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Jubiter Richards, age 30, from Bridgewater, Kingman’s company, Col. Mitchell’s regiment

Toney Rose, age 18, from Middleborough, Churchill’s company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Nehamiah Samson, age 16, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Ceasor Smith, age 24, from Plimpton, Col. Cotton’s regiment

Cesar Steward, age 29, from Pembroke, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Zeba Sutton, age 17 from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Toby Tolbert, age 45, from Bridgewater, Nathaniel Packard’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Jack Tomson, age 40, from Kingston, Capt. Rider’s company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

John Troy, age 21, from Bridgewater, Allden’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Plato Turner, age 28, from Plymouth, Capt. Rider’s company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Salmon Washburn, age 23, from Bridgewater, Allen’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

John Williams, age 26, from Kingston, Lt. Simmons’ company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Uriah Williams, age 29, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Native American Soldiers of the Revolutionary War from Plymouth County :

a list of soldiers identified as “Indian,” compiled from recruiting documents in the collection of the Pilgrim Society, by Jeremy D. Bangs, Visiting Curator of Manuscripts, Pilgrim Hall Museum. ( c The Pilgrim Society, 1996)

John Barker, age 16, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

John Barker, age 29, from Rochester, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

John Capy, age 17, from Rochester, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

Joshua Compsett, age 26, from Scituate, T. Cushing’s company, Col. Cushing’s regiment

Bristoll Davids, age 17, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Thomas Humphrey, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Benjamin Jeffery, age 21, from Kingston, Lt. Simmons company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Cesar Merea, age 16, drummer, from Pembroke, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment

Samuel Mingo, age 28, from Bridgewater, Washburn’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Parm Mouth, age 18, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

David Peauge, age 19, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Benjamin Simon, Jr., age 16, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

James Simons, age 22, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Josiah Soul, age 22, from Plymouth (also enlisted under the name John Methricks, and listed as from Rochester), Lt. Leonard’s company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment

Peleg Stewart, age 16, from Rochester, Lt. Col. Whites regiment

Benjamin Uncket, age 34, from Pembroke, T. Cushing’s company, Col. Cushing’s regiment

Jo. Warrich, age 17, from Marshfield, regiment of Col. Cushing or Lt. Col. Hall

Isaac Wickums, age 16, from Pembroke, T. Cushing’s company, Col. Cushing’s regiment

Samuel Word, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment

Misc. Notes: Plymouth Rock & the American Revolution

“1774. – The inhabitants of the town [Plymouth], animated by the glorious spirit of liberty which pervaded the Province, and mindful of the precious relic of our forefathers, resolved to consecrate the rock on which they landed to the shrine of liberty. Col. Theophilus Cotton, and a large number of the inhabitants assembled, with about 20 yoke of oxen, for the purpose of its removal. The rock was elevated from its bed by means of large screws; and in attempting to mount it on the carriage, it split asunder, without any violence. As no one had observed a flaw, the circumstance occasioned some surprise. It is not strange that some of the patriots of the day should be disposed to indulge a little in superstition, when in favor of their good cause. The separation of the rock was construed to be ominous of a division of the British Empire. The question was now to be decided whether both parts should be removed, and being decided in the negative, the bottom part was dropped again into its original bed, where it still remains, a few inches above the surface of the earth, at the head of the wharf. The upper portion, weighing many tons, was conveyed to the liberty pole square, front of the meeting-house, where, we believe, waved over it a flag with the far-famed motto, ‘Liberty or death.’

This part of the rock was, on the 4th of July, 1834, removed to Pilgrim Hall, and placed in front of that edifice under the charge of the Pilgrim Society.”

From History of the Town of Plymouth by James Thacher, 1835

Military: Cotton, Theophilus, Plymouth.  Colonel: return of provisions delivered said Cotton for his regt., dated Roxbury, June 5, 1775;  also, general order dated Headquarters, Cambridge, July 22, 1775; said Cotton’s regiment assigned to a brigade to be commanded by Brig. Gen. Thomas form part of right wing of army under Maj. Gen. Ward, and to be stationed at Rosbury; also, muster roll of field and staff officers; engaged April 23, 1775; service to Aug. 1, 1775, 3 mos. 16 days; also, return of field and staff officers dated Camp Rosbury Oct. 7, 1775; also, official record of a ballot by the House of Representatives dated Jan. 31, 1777; said Cotton chosen Colonel of 1st Plymouth County Regeiment; appointment concurred in by Council Jan. 31, 1777; reported commissioned Feb. 1, 1777; also, Colnel, Brig. Gen. Palmer’s bridgade; return of officers who marched on “a late expedition” to Rhode Island, dated Germantown, Dec. 11, 1777; also, Colonel, 1st Plymouth County Regiment; appointed March 3, 1781; served until March 31, 1781; [p.13] service, 29 days, at Newport, R.I., by order of His Excellency John Hancock; roll sworn to in Plymouth Co.

Cotton, Theophilus (Mass.) Colonel Massachusetts Regiment, 27th May to December 1775; Colonel Massachusetts Militia, 1776-1781.

Revolutionary War Muster Rolls, 1775-1783:  Colonel Theophilus Cotton Esqr.  Roll Box 42  Roll Extract 0  Roll Record 246

(NEED MORE RESEARCH)

Spouse:                   Martha Sanders, GGGG Grandmother (abt 1717-10 Apr 1796)

Birth:                      abt 171728,28

Birth Place:              Sandwich Township, Massachusetts

Death:                     10 Apr 1796, age: 7928,28

Death Place:             Plymouth Township, Massachusetts

Burial:                     Apr 179630,30

Burial Place:             Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Memo:                    Headston reads:  “Martha COTTON, died April 10, 1796, aged 79 years.  Relict of Col. Theophilus Cotton, Esq.”

Father:                     Henry Sanders, 5G Grandfather (18 Jul 1676-27 May 1756)

Mother:                   Anne Bates, 5G Grandmother (12 Apr 1676-)

Research: Cooley states,  “Martha died April 10, 1796, aged 79 years.”  Therefore it is assumed she was born about 1717.

Marriage:                 29 Oct 174235,36

Marr Place:              Plymouth Township, Massachusetts

6 Children…

                              Lieutenant John (10 Jan 1746-1 Feb 1831)

                              Rowland (30 Apr 1748-15 Aug 1759)

                              William Crowe (14 Dec 1751-1813)

                              Captain Josiah (7 Nov 1753-7 Mar 1829)

                              Edward (17 Apr 1759-)

                              Bethia (11 Feb 1749-8 Jun 1837)

(5) 1.1a.1.5.1 Lieutenant John Cotton37,38,39,38,39,28,40,28, GGG Grandfather

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Birth:                      10 Jan 174628,39,28,39

Birth Place:              Plymouth Township, Massachusetts

Death:                     1 Feb 1831, age: 8541,41

Death Place:             Austin Township, Trumbull County, Ohio

Burial:                     Feb 183141,41

Burial Place:             Cotton Private Cemetery, Austintown, Mahoning County, Ohio

Memo:                    John Cottons inscriptin reads, “A Revolutionary War Patriot who departedthis life Feb 1, AD 1831.  The Cemetery is located in Austintown, Ohio behind 5163 Mahoning Avenue.

Father:                     Colonel Theophilus Cotton, GGGG Grandfather (31 Mar 1716-18 Feb 1782)

Mother:                   Martha Sanders, GGGG Grandmother (abt 1717-10 Apr 1796)

Occupation:              soldier & farmer42

1808 moved to the Mahoning Valley to Marietta, Ohio near present day Youngstown43

______________________________________________________

Reported by Mrs. R.S. Winnagel, Warren, Ohio

DAR Roster 1, p 89 – Roster 2, p 393

COTTON, JOHN – Mahoning County38

B at Plymouth, Mass, son of Theophilus Cotton (also a Revolutionary Soldr) and his wife Martha Saunders. John d at Autintown, (then in Trumbull Co now in Mahoning Co. OH) 2-21-1831.  A Pens.  His appl recorded on  Trumbull Co records states , Juy 1, 1921 a res of Austintown ae 75 yrs 6 mo.  Served as quartermaster in Col Theophilus Cotton’s regt over 8 mos. in 1776, then as ensign in Elijah Brooks’s Company, and John Baily’s Regt. to the close of the year.  He was then appointed Lt in Capt Whipple’s Company, in Rufus Putnam’s Regt, and served in that capacity until some time in the year 1778(?).  He was then appointed quartermaster to John Hixon and continued in said service until Oct 1780.  He then retired and had an honorable disch.  Occupation frming.  Family consisting of self and wife.  he m, (Intentions recorded at Kingston, Mas), 6-29-1780, to Lucy Little, b 9-22-1757 at Marshfield, Mass, dau of Nathaniel Little, Sr. (a Revolutionary Soldr) of Marshfield, Mass and Belpre, Washington Co. OH, and his 2nd wife, Mrs. Keziah (Atwood) Adams both of whom died at Belpre, OH.  Keziah names Lucy Cotton in her will recorded in Washington Co., OH.  Lucy d at Austintown, OH 10-9-1837.  Trumbull, Co records show that three sons and ond dau survied their father.  Children:  Theophilus m 9-4-1808 Hannah Rush of Youngstown, OH; Joshua Thomas b 1-3-1785 m 12-18-1810 Betsey Williamson; John m 2-26-1815 m 2-26-1815 Cynthia Parkhurst; Lucy.  58th N S D A R Report

Military:

Service Record of Lieutenant John Cotton Quartermaster, American Revolution42

April 1775 appointed Quarter Master under Col. Theophilus Cotton for about 8 months.

January 1776 reassigned to  Enign Elija Crother’s Company under Col. John Barbey

December 1776 reassigned to Col. Baily’s Regiment

January 1777 appointed to Lieutenant in Col. Rufus Putnam’s Regiment

May 1780 commission transferred and reassigned as Quartermaster to Gen. John Nixen

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The Human Side of War:  A Father, his son and General George Washington

In April 1775, after the Battle of  Lexington, John Cotton joined the Plymouth Regiment to serve under his father, Colonel Theophilus Cotton as Quarter Master Sergeant.  Sometime between April and September 1775, John “defrauded the Regiment of part of their allowance of provisions”  and was subsequently court-martialed by General George Washington.  This incident was discovered during a search for information on the Cotton Family in the records of the Library of Congress.  In the Washington Papers,  mention of a Court Martial of a Sergeant John Cotton in Colonel Theophilus Cotton’s Plymouth Regiment turned up and was compared with Lt. John Cotton’s Revolutionary War Pension Application to match dates in order to determine if the John Cotton mentioned in the court martial was, in fact, Colonel Theophilus Cotton’s son, John Cotton.  The match seems to be well documented and no other John Cotton has been found that served in the Plymouth Regiment.  The incident does not appear to have been considered a grave matter as John Cotton had to repay money and could no longer serve as quarter master in the Plymouth Regiment. 

John Cotton ended up serving over five (5) years in the Revolutionary War; was appointed an Ensign three (3) months after the court martial under Colonel John Barbey and in January 1777,  received his commission as Lieutenant in Colonel Rufus Putnam’s Regiment.  A transcript of the Court Martial from the Washington Papers follows below along with a photo of the actual entry made by General Washington.42

“Serjt John Cotton, in Col Cottons Regt tried by the same General Court Martial, for “defrauding the regiment of part of their allowance of provisions.”  The Court sentence the Prisoner to refund, and pay back fourteen pounds, six shillings and four pence to said regiment, and be disqualified to serve in said Regiment, as Quarter Master Serjeant, for the future.”44

The “same General Court Martial” refered to took place at:  Head Quarters, Cambridge, September 16, 1775.

Ref.:  The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799

          John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor, Volume 344

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What follows is a transcript of Lt. John Cotton’s application for a Revoluationary War Pension:42

Continental                   John Cotton               S42649

Mass

Page 2a

Attention: G. Fru(not legible)                        July 22, 18–

Hon. Peter Rowd

Jan’y 12, 1855

Died Feb. 1, 1831 (AB)

In right hand margin:  Notification sent to George parsons, Esq., Warren, Ohio, 12 Sept. 1820

Page 2b

11,616 R

OHPO

John Cotton

Col. Putnam in the State of (not legible) who was a Lieutenant in the regiment commanded by Colonel Putnam of the Mass. Co. for the term of 2 years.

Inscribed on the roll of Ohio at the rate of 20 Dollars per month, to commence on the 5th of January 1812.

Certificate of Pension issued the 10th of June 1811 and sent to George Todd, Warren, Trumbull Co., OH

Appears to 4th of Mar 1814 semi-anl.  All’ce ending 4 Sept 19

          40

2 Ms 120

       $160

{Revolutionary claim}

(Act 18th March, 1818}

Coninu.

John Cotton, residing in Youngs town in the County of Trumbull in the State of Ohio, on his solemn oath discloses and says in his affidavit testimony that a few days after the battle of Lexington, he was appointed Quarter Master of the Third Minute Regiment commanded by Theophilus Cotton and marched to Roxbury, that immediately at the onset and of that he was appointed Ensign in Colonel John Barbey’s Regiment, that he served out and was appointed Lieutenant in Colonel Rufus Putnam’s regiment, then in service of the United States.  His commission of Lieutenant then was transferred to the 10th day of may 1780 giving him rank as such from the 1st day of January 1777, that he was at the taking of Burgoyne in 1778 that giving him action in service he was quarter master to General John Nixen’s Brigade in which office he served until the 3rd day of October 1780 being of both assignments and was that day discharged by order of the Commissioner General, as it will appear on the back of his commission, that he is in indigent circumstances and finds the application helps his cause for support and that unless to nullify all claims to any Insurance if any which have been allowed by the Senate (illegible) of the United States, he then petitions for any relief under the Acts of Congress, ratified the 18th day of March 1818 in that “An act to  (provide payment) for certain persons enjoined by the country for personal service to the United States in the revolutionary war”.  (much of the last sentence is barely legible)

signed John Cotton

SCHEDULE

District Court of Ohio ss.  Warren, Trumbull Co.

On the tenth day of Febry 1821, personally appeared in open court (a) being a court of record (b) for the said court, John Cotton, aged seventy five, resident in Austin town in said county, who being first duly sworn, according to law, dot, on his oath declare that he served in the Revolutionary war as follows:  (c) He served as Quarter Master in Col Theophilus Cotton’s Reg in 8 months service the year 1776, then in Ensign Elijah Crother’s Company.  Then Baily’s Regt. to the close of the same year.  That he was then appointed Lieutenant of Capt. Gipp’s Company in Rufus Putnam’s Reg’t and served in that capacity until some time in the year of 1778.  He was then assigned and had an honorable discharge as will appear from his commission from the war office.  His original certificate for pension is dated Sept. 1817 and numbered 11,616 on which he has received two payments on Sept. 1819 and 1820.

And I do solemnly affirm that I was a resident of the United States on the 18 day of March 1818; and that I have not since that time by gift, sale or in any manner disposed of my property, or in any part thereof, with intent to thereby so to diminish it as to bring myself within the provisions of an act of Congress entitled, “An act to provide for certain persons engaged in the land and naval service of the United States in the Revolutionary War passed on 18th March 1818” and that I have not, nor has any person in trust for me, any property, or securities, contracts, or debts, due to me; nor have I any income other than what is contained  in the schedule hereto annexed, and by me subscribed:  (d) to wit  2 cows with their calves, one pair three year old steers, one steer two years old, two yearlings, five sheep, one small looking glass, one time piece, one bake oven, one 2 quart brass kettle, one two pail iron pot, one frying pan, two silver table spoons, six silver tea spoons, one 13 gallon iron kettle, six old chairs.  Amount of debts due me $97.  Amount of debts which I owe exceeds $100.  My family consists of myself and my wife.  My age is 75 years and 6 months that of my wife is 63 years and ten months.  My occupation is farming.  Both my wife and myself are incapacitated to labour and always expect to remain so. My wife having a lazium on her shoulder.

Signed  John Cotton

Affirmed in and declared on the tenth day of July 1821

George Parsons, Clerk of Trumbull County Court

Research: Cooley has date of death mistakenly showing as “1801 or 1803”.

Misc. Notes: 1808 moved to the Mahoning Valley to Marietta, Ohio near present day Youngstown

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Reported by Mrs. R.S. Winnagel, Warren, Ohio

DAR Roster 1, p 89 – Roster 2, p 393

COTTON, JOHN – Mahoning County

B at Plymouth, Mass, son of Theophilus Cotton (also a Revolutionary Soldr) and his wife Martha Saunders. John d at Autintown, (then in Trumbull Co now in Mahoning Co. OH) 2-21-1831.  A Pens.  His appl recorded on  Trumbull Co records states , Juy 1, 1921 a res of Austintown ae 75 yrs 6 mo.  Served as quartermaster in Col Theophilus Cotton’s regt over 8 mos. in 1776, then as ensign in Elijah Brooks’s Company, and John Baily’s Regt. to the close of the year.  He was then appointed Lt in Capt Whipple’s Company, in Rufus Putnam’s Regt, and served in that capacity until some time in the year 1778(?).  He was then appointed quartermaster to John Hixon and continued in said service until Oct 1780.  He then retired and had an honorable disch.  Occupation frming.  Family consisting of self and wife.  he m, (Intentions recorded at Kingston, Mas), 6-29-1780, to Lucy Little, b 9-22-1757 at Marshfield, Mass, dau of Nathaniel Little, Sr. (a Revolutionary Soldr) of Marshfield, Mass and Belpre, Washington Co. OH, and his 2nd wife, Mrs. Keziah (Atwood) Adams both of whom died at Belpre, OH.  Keziah names Lucy Cotton in her will recorded in Washington Co., OH.  Lucy d at Austintown, OH 10-9-1837.  Trumbull, Co records show that three sons and ond dau survied their father.  Children:  Theophilus m 9-4-1808 Hannah Rush of Youngstown, OH; Joshua Thomas b 1-3-1785 m 12-18-1810 Betsey Williamson; John m 2-26-1815 m 2-26-1815 Cynthia Parkhurst; Lucy.  58th N S D A R Report

Brief Bio: BORN at Plymouth, Mass, son of Theophilus Cotton (also a Revolutionary Soldr) and his wife Martha Saunders. John d at Autintown, (then in Trumbull Co now in Mahoning Co. OH) 2-21-1831.  A Pens.  His appl recorded on  Trumbull Co records states , Juy 1, 1921 a res of Austintown ae 75 yrs 6 mo.  Served as quartermaster in Col Theophilus Cotton’s regt over 8 mos. in 1776, then as ensign in Elijah Brooks’s Company, and John Baily’s Regt. to the close of the year.  He was then appointed Lt in Capt Whipple’s Company, in Rufus Putnam’s Regt, and served in that capacity until some time in the year 1778(?).  He was then appointed quartermaster to John Hixon and continued in said service until Oct 1780.  He then retired and had an honorable disch.  Occupation frming.  Family consisting of self and wife.  he m, (Intentions recorded at Kingston, Mas), 6-29-1780, to Lucy Little, b 9-22-1757 at Marshfield, Mass, dau of Nathaniel Little, Sr. (a Revolutionary Soldr) of Marshfield, Mass and Belpre, Washington Co. OH, and his 2nd wife, Mrs. Keziah (Atwood) Adams both of whom died at Belpre, OH.  Keziah names Lucy Cotton in her will recorded in Washington Co., OH.  Lucy d at Austintown, OH 10-9-1837.  Trumbull, Co records show that three sons and ond dau survied their father.  Children:  Theophilus m 9-4-1808 Hannah Rush of Youngstown, OH; Joshua Thomas b 1-3-1785 m 12-18-1810 Betsey Williamson; John m 2-26-1815 m 2-26-1815 Cynthia Parkhurst; Lucy.  58th N S D A R Report 1808 moved to the Mahoning Valley to Marietta, Ohio near present day Youngstown43

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Reported by Mrs. R.S. Winnagel, Warren, Ohio

DAR Roster 1, p 89 – Roster 2, p 393

Service Record of Lieutenant John Cotton Quartermaster, American Revolution42

April 1775 appointed Quarter Master under Col. Theophilus Cotton for about 8 months.

January 1776 reassigned to  Enign Elija Crother’s Company under Col. John Barbey

December 1776 reassigned to Col. Baily’s Regiment

January 1777 appointed to Lieutenant in Col. Rufus Putnam’s Regiment

May 1780 commission transferred and reassigned as Quartermaster to Gen. John Nixen

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The Human Side of War:  A Father, his son and General George Washington

In April 1775, after the Battle of  Lexington, John Cotton joined the Plymouth Regiment to serve under his father, Colonel Theophilus Cotton as Quarter Master Sergeant.  Sometime between April and September 1775, John “defrauded the Regiment of part of their allowance of provisions”  and was subsequently court-martialed by General George Washington.  This incident was discovered during a search for information on the Cotton Family in the records of the Library of Congress.  In the Washington Papers,  mention of a Court Martial of a Sergeant John Cotton in Colonel Theophilus Cotton’s Plymouth Regiment turned up and was compared with Lt. John Cotton’s Revolutionary War Pension Application to match dates in order to determine if the John Cotton mentioned in the court martial was, in fact, Colonel Theophilus Cotton’s son, John Cotton.  The match seems to be well documented and no other John Cotton has been found that served in the Plymouth Regiment.  The incident does not appear to have been considered a grave matter as John Cotton had to repay money and could no longer serve as quarter master in the Plymouth Regiment. 

John Cotton ended up serving over five (5) years in the Revolutionary War; was appointed an Ensign three (3) months after the court martial under Colonel John Barbey and in January 1777,  received his commission as Lieutenant in Colonel Rufus Putnam’s Regiment.  A transcript of the Court Martial from the Washington Papers follows below along with a photo of the actual entry made by General Washington.42

“Serjt John Cotton, in Col Cottons Regt tried by the same General Court Martial, for “defrauding the regiment of part of their allowance of provisions.”  The Court sentence the Prisoner to refund, and pay back fourteen pounds, six shillings and four pence to said regiment, and be disqualified to serve in said Regiment, as Quarter Master Serjeant, for the future.”44

The “same General Court Martial” refered to took place at:  Head Quarters, Cambridge, September 16, 1775.

Ref.:  The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799

          John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor, Volume 344

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What follows is a transcript of Lt. John Cotton’s application for a Revoluationary War Pension:42

Continental                   John Cotton               S42649

Mass

Page 2a

Attention: G. Fru(not legible)                        July 22, 18–

Hon. Peter Rowd

Jan’y 12, 1855

Died Feb. 1, 1831 (AB)

In right hand margin:  Notification sent to George parsons, Esq., Warren, Ohio, 12 Sept. 1820

Page 2b

11,616 R

OHPO

John Cotton

Col. Putnam in the State of (not legible) who was a Lieutenant in the regiment commanded by Colonel Putnam of the Mass. Co. for the term of 2 years.

Inscribed on the roll of Ohio at the rate of 20 Dollars per month, to commence on the 5th of January 1812.

Certificate of Pension issued the 10th of June 1811 and sent to George Todd, Warren, Trumbull Co., OH

Appears to 4th of Mar 1814 semi-anl.  All’ce ending 4 Sept 19

          40

2 Ms 120

       $160

{Revolutionary claim}

(Act 18th March, 1818}

Coninu.

John Cotton, residing in Youngs town in the County of Trumbull in the State of Ohio, on his solemn oath discloses and says in his affidavit testimony that a few days after the battle of Lexington, he was appointed Quarter Master of the Third Minute Regiment commanded by Theophilus Cotton and marched to Roxbury, that immediately at the onset and of that he was appointed Ensign in Colonel John Barbey’s Regiment, that he served out and was appointed Lieutenant in Colonel Rufus Putnam’s regiment, then in service of the United States.  His commission of Lieutenant then was transferred to the 10th day of may 1780 giving him rank as such from the 1st day of January 1777, that he was at the taking of Burgoyne in 1778 that giving him action in service he was quarter master to General John Nixen’s Brigade in which office he served until the 3rd day of October 1780 being of both assignments and was that day discharged by order of the Commissioner General, as it will appear on the back of his commission, that he is in indigent circumstances and finds the application helps his cause for support and that unless to nullify all claims to any Insurance if any which have been allowed by the Senate (illegible) of the United States, he then petitions for any relief under the Acts of Congress, ratified the 18th day of March 1818 in that “An act to  (provide payment) for certain persons enjoined by the country for personal service to the United States in the revolutionary war”.  (much of the last sentence is barely legible)

signed John Cotton

SCHEDULE

District Court of Ohio ss.  Warren, Trumbull Co.

On the tenth day of Febry 1821, personally appeared in open court (a) being a court of record (b) for the said court, John Cotton, aged seventy five, resident in Austin town in said county, who being first duly sworn, according to law, dot, on his oath declare that he served in the Revolutionary war as follows:  (c) He served as Quarter Master in Col Theophilus Cotton’s Reg in 8 months service the year 1776, then in Ensign Elijah Crother’s Company.  Then Baily’s Regt. to the close of the same year.  That he was then appointed Lieutenant of Capt. Gipp’s Company in Rufus Putnam’s Reg’t and served in that capacity until some time in the year of 1778.  He was then assigned and had an honorable discharge as will appear from his commission from the war office.  His original certificate for pension is dated Sept. 1817 and numbered 11,616 on which he has received two payments on Sept. 1819 and 1820.

And I do solemnly affirm that I was a resident of the United States on the 18 day of March 1818; and that I have not since that time by gift, sale or in any manner disposed of my property, or in any part thereof, with intent to thereby so to diminish it as to bring myself within the provisions of an act of Congress entitled, “An act to provide for certain persons engaged in the land and naval service of the United States in the Revolutionary War passed on 18th March 1818” and that I have not, nor has any person in trust for me, any property, or securities, contracts, or debts, due to me; nor have I any income other than what is contained  in the schedule hereto annexed, and by me subscribed:  (d) to wit  2 cows with their calves, one pair three year old steers, one steer two years old, two yearlings, five sheep, one small looking glass, one time piece, one bake oven, one 2 quart brass kettle, one two pail iron pot, one frying pan, two silver table spoons, six silver tea spoons, one 13 gallon iron kettle, six old chairs.  Amount of debts due me $97.  Amount of debts which I owe exceeds $100.  My family consists of myself and my wife.  My age is 75 years and 6 months that of my wife is 63 years and ten months.  My occupation is farming.  Both my wife and myself are incapacitated to labour and always expect to remain so. My wife having a lazium on her shoulder.

Signed  John Cotton

Affirmed in and declared on the tenth day of July 1821

George Parsons, Clerk of Trumbull County Court

Spouse:                   Lucy Little, GGG Grandmother (22 Sep 1757-9 Oct 1837)

Birth:                      22 Sep 175745,46,45,46

Birth Place:              Marshfield,  Massachusetts

Memo:                    born at “Seven of ye Clock”

Death:                     9 Oct 1837, age: 8041,41

Death Place:             Austin Township, Trumbull County, Ohio

Burial:                     Oct 183741,41

Burial Place:             Cotton Private Cemetery, Austintown, Mahoning County, Ohio

Memo:                    The Cemetery is located in Austintown, Ohio behind 5163 Mahoning Avenue.

Father:                     Captain Nathaniel Little, GGGG Grandfather (20 Aug 1722-aft 3 Apr 1795)

Mother:                   Keziah Atwood, GGGG Grandmother (18 Apr 1721-Apr 1814)